Thursday, October 31, 2019

Advertising in the 21st century Unit 9 Project Essay

Advertising in the 21st century Unit 9 Project - Essay Example This piece of research work addresses the relevance of IMC in today’s business world and examines how this can be implemented as a strategic step for advertising campaign. This paper identifies three companies at different levels, one from the Fortune 500 lists, one form the INC lists and one from the major online shopping companies and describes how these companies can effectively use IMC as basic strategy for their marketing. Lamb, Hair and McDaniel (2004) described that integrated marketing communication is a careful combination of all promotional messages like traditional advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, event marketing, public relation, interactive marketing and so on so as to assure consistency in whatever messages being communicated to the targeted markets (p. 413). Belch and Belch (2007) emphasized that IMC is a marketing process of planning, designing and developing brand communication program with customers, employees and associates in order to build short term financial benefits and long term brand value (p. 11). Various communication tools are effectively coordinated based on company’s goal to reach different target market more effectively and thus to create short term profitability and long term brand equity and brand loyalty among the customers. IMC is a process in which companies accelerate its revenues and returns by aligning communication objectives with business goals (Schultz and Schultz, 2004, P. 3). Business goals normally include profitable operation as well successful marketing of goods or services being offered to the customers. IMC helps companies achieve their objectives by aligning and coordinating various elements of communication including advertising, sales promotion, direct selling, public relation etc. IMC has become relevant in today’s business because it not only

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Please see in other instructions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Please see in other instructions - Essay Example One of their more recent forays happened to be one into the financial industry, specifically in the form of Virgin Money plc which, at 17 years old, is still relatively new to this industry. Regardless, it was able to achieve a respectable level of success, if its global expansion in the turn of the millennium is anything to go by. Whatever complaints people might have about the level of customer service, Virgin Money plc must have at least halfway decent services if it has managed to go on operating for the past 17 years. have been getting mixed reactions from clients. Indeed, there are firsthand accounts on various forums and review sites on the internet that tell of the quality of Virgin Moneys services, not all of which are flattering. This being the case, it may be worth examining the customer service management approach taken by Virgin Money. The paper shall first provide a brief, 2-page history of Virgin Money, before introducing the concept of customer relations management - sometimes called customer services management - and how it applies to this firm. An explanation on the groups findings on the matter comes next, as well as on the methods used to obtain data. Rounding the study off is the conclusion, which includes recommendations as to how Virgin Money can improve on its customer service. Virgin Money was established as Virgin Direct by Richard Branson in 1995, and has always been owned by the Virgin Group. Based in the UK, this company deals primarily in banking and other financial services, and has been known as a pioneer of index tracking in its introduction of Personal Equity Plans at relatively affordable prices. Since it expanded its services worldwide early on in the past decade, the company went on to achieve even greater levels of success (BBC News, 2011). As with all companies, Virgin Money had tender beginnings of its own, having first been launched in partnership with Norwich Union in 1995 as Virgin Direct Personal Financial

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Development of Autism Research

Development of Autism Research Fighting the Monster By writing a book called Infantile Autism, a Navy psychologist named Bernard Rimland established autism as an inborn condition rather than bad parenting. The books popularity inspired him to launch the National Society for Autistic Children (NSAC). By forming an alliance and reaching out to parents, he gave the parents in his network a sense of hope and progress at a time when there was virtually no research in the field, setting the stage for the surge of interest in autism research. Bernard Rimland was born in Cleveland in 1928, the son of Russian Jewish parents who emigrated after World War I. When he was twelve, his family relocated to San Diego, California. He got a bachelors degree in experimental psychology from San Diego State University in 1950 and earned his masters degree a year later. He met Gloria Alf, a Jewish girl from the neighborhood, and got married before heading east to Penn State to earn his doctorate. After completing his degree at Penn State, Rimland was hired as the director of research at the new naval base in San Diego. Their son, Mark, was born in the spring of 1956. But something was drastically wrong with Mark and it was only much later that his condition was determined to be early infantile autism. Besides reading everything he could on the subject, Rimland wrote a letter to Kanner in 1959 describing his sons behavior and announcing his intention to write a paper on the subject. After five years of research, Rimland published his book Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior in 1964, featuring an introduction by Kanner. The crux of the book was that autism is primarily a product of genetic inheritance rather than family dynamics. At one point, he even referred to Asperger syndrome without explaining it. He suggested that in some cases the syndrome was caused by unknown environmental factors acting upon a genetic predisposition. He speculated that parents who tend to be gifted in certain fields pass this vulnerability down to their children along with the genetic factors for high intelligence. This hypothesis would fall into disrepute in the 1970s as studies by Michael Rutter and others proved that autism does not discriminate by IQ or educational level and is equally prevalent across all socioeconomic strata. Rimland wanted the diagnosis to be strictly defined so that autism would turn out to be a metabolic dysfunction akin to phenylketonuria (PKU) that could be averted with a dietary intervention. PKU is a rare genetic disorder due to a gene mutation that impairs the metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine. Untreated PKU can lead to behavioral problems, seizures, intellectual disability, and mental disorder. To facilitate autism research, Rimland included in the book a questionnaire called the Diagnostic Check List for Behavior-Disturbed Children (Form E-1), designed as a template for clinicians to copy and give to parents. After the book came out, Rimland unexpectedly received piles of completed E-1 forms. He followed up with the parents by telephone after scoring the checklist with a proprietary algorithm. He was so gregarious and empathetic to the parents that he became Uncle Bernie to a generation of families. In the second edition of his book, he included a revised version of the checklist called the E-2 designed for the parents to send to Rimland directly. His questionnaires had planted the seeds of a revolution. *** In the 1960s, most psychologists in America were still convinced that autistic kids were constitutionally incapable of learning. But a professor in the Psychology department of the UCLA named Ole Ivar Lovaas thought otherwise. Ole Ivar Lovaas was born in Norway in 1927. He and his family were forced to work as migrant laborers when the Nazis occupied Norway in June 1940. After the war ended, Lovaas was allowed to immigrate to the United States on the strength of his violin playing. He got a music scholarship at Luther College in Iowa and earned his bachelors degree in a year. Then he talked his way into the graduate program in psychology at the University of Washington in Seattle. He didnt want to become a psychoanalyst because he had lost patience with the speculations of theory-based psychiatry, so he focused on lab research. After earning his doctorate at the University of Washington, Lovaas stayed in Seattle, teaching and conducting research at the Child Development Institute near the university. At the institute, he experienced that improving the language skills of children with developmental delays might help them control their problematic behavior. He was also influenced by a psychologist at Indiana University named Charles Ferster who proposed that parents had inadvertently conditioned their children to be more and more autistic by rewarding their misbehavior with doting attention. In 1961, he accepted a position as an assistant professor in the psychology department at UCLA. In his first year on the job, the Clinic referred only one child to his lab: a nine-year-old girl named Beth who spoke mostly in echolalia and bore scars all over from banging herself against walls and furniture. Luvaas outfitted a suite of rooms with one-way mirrors, hidden microphones, and a push-button device that enabled his assistants to record the frequency and duration of her behaviors. He called this style of intensive intervention applied behavioral analysis, or ABA. Rimland was skeptical of the Lovaas method when he first heard about it. But he set his doubts aside and began to use the technique in training his eight-year-old autistic son. Lovaas had been thinking about inviting parents into the process because the lessons learned in ABA often didnt generalize beyond the artificial situation in the lab. The best hope for stimulating lasting behavior change was to train the children in their natural environment at home. Rimland arranged a dinner with Lovaas and a few of the couples from his network of autistic parents. Before the meal was over, they were begging Lovaas to train them in his method. By forming an alliance and reaching out directly to parents, Rimland and Lovaas had just built a shadow infrastructure for autism research in which parents, rather than medical professionals, were the ultimate authorities on their childrens well-being. *** In the fall of 1965, Rimland received a letter from Ruth Christ Sullivan, a young nurse and mother of an autistic son. Sullivan proposed forming a national group to advocate for the needs of autistic children. On November 14, 1965, Sullivan, Rimland and 60 other parents formed the National Society of Autistic Children. In the coming years, parents would launch hundreds of local NSAC chapters all over the country. By the mid-1970s, the NSAC launched a number of legislations aimed at protecting the rights of individuals with autism and mandating services for them, especially education. Autism was also included in the Developmental Disabilities Act of 1976. In 1974, by conducting thorough examinations of 78 children brought to the Childrens Brain Research Clinic in Washington by NSAC members, the clinics researchers theorized that autism is not a single clinical entity but is composed of multiple distinct subtypes. Rimland also did a groundbreaking study on savant skills based on data from his questionnaires, rediscovering the same clusters of enhanced ability in music, memory, art, science, mathematics, and technology that Asperger called autistic intelligence. Over time, the two paths represented by NSACs founders Sullivans focus on services and Rimlands search for a cure would diverge, resulting in Rimland being voted off the board of his own organization. *** Meanwhile, Lovaas was experimenting with alternating rounds of acquisition (reinforce proper behavior) and extinction (extinguish self-injurious behavior) trials on Berh. He found that she was responsive on acquisition trials, but not on extinction trials. So Lovaas sought a more expeditious solution, which was the use of punishment. Concerned that some of his techniques might seem unorthodox, Lovaas invited members of the press down to the lab to watch him in action. When the articles came out, members of the NSAC were concerned about how brutally kids were being treated at UCLA. Despite Rimlands tireless cheerleading for aversives, many NSAC parents refused to use them. Meanwhile, state hospitals across the country embraced the harsh techniques promoted by Lovaas at UCLA as a way of keeping problem patients in line. In 1988, the NSAC (now changed the name to the Autism Society of America) has passed a resolution calling for a ban on aversive techniques. But painful electric shocks are still employed to punish autistic children at an institution called the Judge Rotenberg Educational Center in Massachusetts, even in the face of a public outcry against their use. In the 1970s, Lovaas lent his expertise to a series of experiments called the Feminine Boy Project. The projects most celebrated success story was Kirk Andrew Murphy. Kirks was enrolled into the program at UCLA when he was five because his parents were concerned that he was exhibiting behavior that was too feminine. Lovaas worked with a graduate student named George Rekers who was Kirks behavioral therapist. Rekers and Lovaas devised a program of total immersion based on Lovaass work on autism. After sixty sessions in the lab, Rekers and Lovaas declared victory over Kirks sissy-boy behavior. Rekers went on to build a career based on the premise that homosexuality can be prevented. He became a founding member of the Family Research Council, a faith-based organization that lobbies against gay-rights issues. In the meantime, Kirk committed suicide in 2003 at age thirty-eight, following decades of depression. His parents claimed that Kirks earlier therapy had contributed to his suicide. In 2010, Rekers days as an anti-gay champion came to an end when two journalists ambushed him at the Miami airport returning from a holiday in Madrid with a hired male escort. In 1987, Lovaas claimed that nearly half of the children in an experimental group at UCLA had achieved normal intellectual functioning by undertaking intensive ABA starting at age three. Lovaass study was the breakthrough that many parents had been waiting for: empirical proof that their children could become normal given enough devotion, effort, and expense. *** In 1964, Rimland received an invitation from the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Standford University for a years fellowship in Palo Alto. There he fell under the spell of Linus Pauling, who had won two Nobel Prizes, a Nobel prize in Chemistry, and a Nobel Peace Prize. Pauling was the most prominent advocate of the notion that megadoses of Vitamin C could avert the common cold, slow the aging process, and improve mood. Paulings concept of orthomolecular psychiatry meshed perfectly with Rimlands thoughts on PKU and autism. Meanwhile, Rimland had started getting letters from parents claiming that their sons and daughters had become more calm and engaged after taking megadoses of certain nutrients, particularly vitamins B and C. After talking with doctors convinced of the therapeutic value of the megavitamin regimen, Rimland established the Institute for Child Behavior Research, later renamed the Autism Research Institute in San Diego to launch a study. But he di d not use the so-called double-blind placebo-controlled trial model in his study. Instead, he developed a home-brewed form of data analysis that he called computer clustering, an algorithmic search for clinically significant ripples in a sea of big data. With 45 percent of parents reporting that the vitamins definitely helped their children, Rimland was thrilled with the results of his experiment. But three independent analyses of his dataset revealed more problems with his design. The design of the experiment with parents as evaluators of changes in their childrens behavior was anything but blind in the statistical sense. A Navy statistician with access to the raw data concluded that no reliable information about the reaction in the vitamins by various subtypes in the sample population could be obtained by using Rimlands computer clustering scheme. Rimland was bugged by the disappointing response of his peers to his megavitamin experiment. Noting the serious side effects caused by prescription drugs, Rimland concluded that the future of his work was not to be found in conventional medicine. He would eventually encourage his parent-experimenters to try several treatments at once, making it nearly impossible to tease out the benefits and side effects of any single one. This try-everything-at-once approach gave the parents in his network a tremendous sense of hope and momentum at a time when the mainstream science of autism was at a standstill. From his office in Kensington, a suburb of San Diego, Rimland forged a productive alliance with the nineteen-year-old Steve Edelson, a psychology/sociology major in Lovaass lab. Together they wrote a book called Recovering Autistic Children that became one of the bibles of the biomedical movement. In the 1990s, they launched Defeat Autism Now! (DAN!), the network of clinicians and alt-med practitioners that Shannon Rosa turned to for advice on the GFGC diet and other treatments after Leo was diagnosed in 2002.

Friday, October 25, 2019

My Philosophy on Education Essays -- School Learning Philosophies Essa

My Philosophy on Education My philosophy on education is a bit of Essentialism and Progressivism. I know these are two drastically different philosophies, but they both have certain points of view I agree with. For example, strictness (Essentialism) should be used with the idea that students need to find their own way (Progressivism). As I discuss my own Philosophy on education, these different views on education will be incorporated. Students are children who feel trapped into going to school. This feeling eventually turns into acceptance. They have acceptance that they must go to school to better themselves. Many students fall into the trap of being forced to "make good grades", and end up learning in the process. These students come to college to realize it takes time, some disappointment, and harder work than they were used to in Public Schools. Some never receive a desire to learn and are passed on year by year without proper knowledge of the subject matter. These students eventually drop out, or may graduate without plans of education themselves further. They feel that they did their time, and they want to go ahead and live life. Then there are those exceptional students who yearn for knowledge. They received gratification from an early age that learning is fun and rewarding. My goal is to turn all students into thirsty learners. As I observed in a local elementary school, all three types of these students can be found in a classroom. The ones goofing off in the back of the class have no support from parents. Students who quickly finish their work and suck up to the teacher are often pressured at home to be the best. A thirsty learner’s parents simply want their child to do his/her best. These students... it daily, while "The Gettysburg Address" was quickly forgotten after reciting it one. Reinforcement and progression of knowledge are key, and year-round schooling would be the doorway to a better education for students. I plan to join the Teacher’s Union when I enter the work force. The backing of a group would be helpful throughout my career. I would not like to be stuck in surprising situation (i.e. suing parent), without the assistance of the Union. Education has been the center of my life with both of my parents being teachers. This will never change, and I am now developing my own view on education. Essentialism is important because we would not have made it thus far without it. Progressivism is important because this may be the future. I hope I can integrate both of these philosophies and my view points I’ve mentioned into my teaching career.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Poverty Alleviation Through Zakah and Waqf Institutions Essay

* Islam emphasize on the importance of distributive justice through Zakah, waqf†¦ * The main objectives of Zakah are to promote stable economic growth through investments, employment and balance consumption, and the achievement of greater income equality through an equitable distribution of wealth, thereby eliminating poverty and extreme disparities of wealth between the rich and the poor. * Waqf is holding a Maal (an asset) and preventing its consumption for the purpose of repeatedly extracting its usufruct for the benefit of an objective representing righteousness and/or philanthropy for as long as its principal is preserved either by its own nature – as in land – or from arrangements and conditions prescribed by the Waqf founder. * In the past, the state would assign Zakah workers. * The first known Waqf is the mosque of Qubaa in Madinah, â€Å"which was built upon the arrival of the Prophet (Peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) followed by the purchase of the land and construction of the mosque, known today as the Prophet‟s mosque†. * There are three types of Waqf, religious Waqf, philanthropic Waqf, and posterity or family Waqf. * Religious Waqf â€Å"adds to the social welfare of the community because it helps satisfy the religious needs of people and reduces the direct cost of providing religious services for any future generation†. * Philanthropic Waqf â€Å"aimed at supporting the poor segment of the society and all activities that are of interest to people at large such as public utilities, libraries, scientific research, education, health services, care of animals and environment, lending to small businessmen, parks, roads, bridges, dams, etc†. * Posterity or family Waqf â€Å"is argued that it is charitable in essence because it gives income/usufruct to persons free of charges and improves the welfare of future generation†.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Analysis of Factors Influencing Attrition in It Sector Essay

With the economy of India booming at an all time high despite the impact of recession, it is an employee’s market. A large number of multiple jobs are being circulated in organizations and across industries, employees take little time to ponder and leave for greener pastures. In the event the employee feels dissatisfied with his job content, colleagues, boss or a general feeling of discontentment, disillusionment or disappointment creeps in him, considering present market conditions he need not think twice but can easily chucks for good. But obviously it is not good for the employers. Organizations spend a major buck in inducting an employee, beginning from the recruitment process to his internalization in the organization. After reaping rich benefits in the organization in terms of learning, growth, development and availing every possible opportunity in that time span he feels he should go. The HR department is left in the hanging as how to fill in the gap between the demand and supply in terms of human resources. But it helps organizations understand why at all attrition takes place. Why at all at the first place did the idea for leaving come in the mind of the employee. And if at all it came, then why the organization was not pro-active enough to have sensed his dissatisfaction. Furthermore why was it not well equipped to have stopped him from leaving? The entire cycle is vicious. Normally no one welcomes change unless it is forced to be applied. Similarly when an employee joins the organization, he really has no intension of leaving. Circumstances and conditions arise which make him think towards cutting ties. If negative conditions continue to exist then he is confirmed to leave. We all know people do crib about money, not good perks and facilities but if they are happy they stay for the sake of that happiness. People also join organizations for their need for socialization. When they form friends at their work stations; they look forward coming to office every morning. People leave because of boredom and disenchantment from everything. They find no other recluse other than leaving towards somewhere else.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The consequence when there is a direct clash between EU law and National legislation. The WritePass Journal

The consequence when there is a direct clash between EU law and National legislation. Introduction The consequence when there is a direct clash between EU law and National legislation. IntroductionFreedom to Provide ServicesReferencesRelated Introduction The legal effects and scope of the EU has been properly illustrated in the scenario presented. One of such is the consequence when there is a direct clash between EU law and National legislation. This can be illustrated as follows. Botan Burgers, which is the Polish company with Poland being part of the European Union wanting to setup business in the Olympic Park are on correct legal grounds as the provisions in the European Community Law clearly allows freedom of establishment for firms and individuals of other member states in regions of other member states. Even if it is argued that the Olympic Games are for a short period and temporary in nature, the ‘Freedom to Provide Services’ (Article 56 TFEU) would apply and enable it to carry on business. â€Å"The provision of services applies in the case of a temporary pursue of the activity. The temporary nature of the provision of services does, however, not exclude the service provider to equip himself with some form of infrastructure in the host Member State (including an office, chambers or consulting rooms) in so far as such infrastructure is necessary for the purposes of performing the services in question.. It is as per the basic principle of freedom of establishment and the same also has a basis in Articles 49-55 of the TFEU. For a clearer understanding of the concepts of freedom of establishment for nationals of particular state trying to setup up business in another member’s state, relevant facts of Article 49 and Article 54 should be looked at. To better understand the freedom of establishment, Article 49 and Article 54 tend to be read together. As per Article 49 restricting the freedom of establishment to nationals of a Member State in the region of another Member State is prohibited. Freedom of establishment includes the right to pursue and take up activities on a self employed basis and also to manage and create undertakings, especially firms or companies within the meaning of the second paragraph of Article 54. The second paragraph defines firms or companies as ‘firms or companies constituted under civil or commercial law, including cooperative societies, and other legal persons governed by public or private law, save for those which are non-profit-making.’ The right of establishment, therefore, is granted both to natural and legal persons; this is clearly illustrated in Sodemare v Regione Lombardia. Sodemare was a company based in Luxembourg and it mainly provided sheltered accommodation for elderly residents. This company was refused approval to enter into contracts with public authorities in the place called Lombardy in Italy; the contracts would have enabled Sodemare to carry on its business and get paid or reimbursed for some of the health care services it provided. The reason for refusal was that as per Lombard law such contracts could only be entered and were available to non profit making bodies. This was challenged by Sodemare who claimed that it violated Article 49 because it affected its ability to run business in Italy. The ruling was in favour of Sodemare and this judgement   was very important from the point of view of freedom of establishment. As regards to Article 52 of the Treaty, which is to be referred together with Article 58 thereof, it must be noted that the right of establishment with which these provisions are concerned is granted both to natural persons who are nationals of a Member State of the Community and to legal persons within the meaning of Article 58. Subject to the exceptions and conditions laid down, it allows all types of self-employed activity to be taken up and pursued on the territory of any other Member State, undertakings to be formed and operated and agencies, branches or subsidiaries to be set up. The teeth of this principle is that natural persons, who are nationals of a Member State, and Community companies may take up economic activity in any Member State in a stable and continuous way and cannot be discriminated against based on nationality (Article 49 TFEU) or the mode of incorporation (Article 49 and Article 54 TFEU). Freedom to Provide Services The ECJ noted in that respect that the it is therefore not necessary to consider whether the foundation acts as a service provider. Despite the supplementing character, the freedom to provide services is required as another distinct freedom because the cross border provision of services may be effected without any actual goods being physically moved, without (secondary) establishment and without relocation of any capital across the border.   Although Article 50(1) EC defines services as services not being governed by the provisions relating to freedom of movement of capital, goods and persons, it does not establish any particular order of priority between the freedom to provide services and the other fundamental freedoms. The provision of services applies in the case of a temporary pursue of the activity. The temporary nature of the provision of services does, however, not exclude the service provider to equip himself with some form of infrastructure in the host Member State (inclu ding an office, chambers or consulting rooms) in so far as such infrastructure is necessary for the purposes of performing the services in question. Furthermore, the mere fact of having some kind of infrastructure in the Host State does not per se preclude the application of the freedom to provide services. The freedom to provide services is distinguished from the free movement of goods by the fact that services are intangible. The provision of services can however require importing respective auxiliary materials. The above right of freedom to provide services could be clearly illustrated using the Reinhard Gebhard v. Consiglio dell’Ordine degli Avvocati e Procuratori di Milano[5]case. Reinhard Gebhard, a German national, obtained a law degree at the University of Tiibingen in Germany. He is authorized to practice as a Rechtsanwalt in Germany and was admitted to the Stuttgart Bar in 1977. Although he does not have chambers of his own in Germany, he works as an â€Å"independent collaborator† in a set of chambers there. Article 2 of Law No. 31/82 provides that nationals of Member States authorized to practice as lawyers in the Member State from which they com shall be permitted to pursue lawyers’ professional activities on a temporary basis in contentious and non-contentious matters in accordance with the detailed rules laid down in this title. For the purpose of the pursuit of the professional activities referred to in the preceding paragraph, the establishment on the territory of the Republic either of chambers or branch office is not permitted. On October 14, 1991, Gebhard applied to the Milan Bar Council to be entered on the roll of members of the Bar. His application was based on Council Directive 89/48/EEC of December 21, 1988 on a general system for the recognition of higher-education diplomas awarded on completion of professional education and training of at least three years’ duration’ and of his having completed a ten- year training period in Italy. On December 30, 1992, the Milan Bar Council took a decision, by which they imposed on Gebhard the sanction of suspension from pursuing his professional activity for six months. The Milan Bar Council did not take a formal decision on Gebhard’s application to be entered on the roll of the Milan Bar. Gebhard appealed this decision to the Consiglio Nazionale Forense (National Bar Council). His appeal was directed not only against the sanction that was imposed on him but also against the implied rejection of the Milan Bar Council to be entered on the roll. Before the National Bar Council, Gebhard argued that he was entitled to pursue his professional activity from his own chambers in Milan, referring to Council Directive 77/249/EEC of March 22, 1977 to facilitate the effective exercise by lawyers of freedom to provide services, implemented in Italy by Law No. 31/82, the same law as Gebhard was alleged to have infringed. Directive 77/249/EEC draws a distinction between (a) activities relating to the representation of a client in legal proceedings or before public authorities and (b) all other activities. Article 4(1) of the Directive provides that â€Å"activities relating to the representation of a client in legal proceedings or before public authorities shall be pursued in each host Member State under the conditions laid down for lawyers established in that State with the exception of any conditions requiring residence, or registration with a professional organization, in that State.† The National Bar Council stayed the discipl inary proceedings and referred to the Court two questions on the interpretation of Directive 77/249/ EEC, namely whether the Italian law which prohibits lawyers established in another Member State who provide services in the territory of the Italian Republic from opening chambers or a principal or branch office in Italy is compatible with the Directive, and as to what criteria have to be applied in assessing whether activities are of a temporary nature. The UK high court will have to set aside the bye law which was created by the Olympic Games Regulations 2011, under Section 7 of the regulations which allows only UK citizens to own or operate businesses at the Olympic Games venues. This bye law is contrary to the many provisions and articles in the European Community Act which have been discussed above especially ones which allow members in other national state to setup establishment in UK and to provide services. The UK high court is unlikely to seek an Article 267 reference for this case and is very likely to rule in favour of Botan Burgers. However, in case an article 267 reference is sought whereby the UK high court puts a question to the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ) either on the interpretation of relevant parts of the TFEU or relevant secondary legislation or on the constitutionality of relevant secondary legislation, then the ECJ based on the relevant provisions is likely to rule in favour of Botan Burgers and advise the UK high court to proceed accordingly. It should be noted here that the purpose of ECJ here is to try to ensure a uniform application of EU law throughout the European Union. In conclusion, OMT giving advice to the it should be noted that the ECJ would set aside this legislation to allow EU law prevail. Therefore, s.7 of the Olympic Games Regulation should be adjusted to conform to EU law in other to ensure uniformity in the application of EU law. References Chalmers, Damian; Davies, Gareth Monti, Giorgio (2010); â€Å"European Union Law: Cases and Materials†, Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition, ISBN 0521121515, 9780521121514, page 858 Chalmers, Damian; Davies, Gareth Monti, Giorgio (2010); â€Å"European Union Law: Cases and Materials†, Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition, ISBN 0521121515, 9780521121514, page 235 Joan, Paul Kapteyn, George (2008); The law of the European Union and the European Communities: with reference to changes to be made by the Lisbon Treaty; 4th Edition, Kluwer Law International, ISBN 9041128166, 9789041128164 page 191 Joan, Paul Kapteyn, George (2008); The law of the European Union and the European Communities: with reference to changes to be made by the Lisbon Treaty; 4th Edition, Kluwer Law International, ISBN 9041128166, 9789041128164 page 264 Weatherill, S (2010); Cases and materials on EU Law; Oxford University Press, 9th edition, ISBN 0199562253, 9780199214013

Monday, October 21, 2019

A hero of tragedy must evoke the audiences with a sense of pity and fear Essays

A hero of tragedy must evoke the audiences with a sense of pity and fear Essays A hero of tragedy must evoke the audiences with a sense of pity and fear Paper A hero of tragedy must evoke the audiences with a sense of pity and fear Paper Othello fulfils the criteria of a domestic tragedy as it focus on the marital relationship between Othello and his wife, Desdemona. Shakespeare follows patterns of Aristotle’s theory of tragedy which enables him to elicit â€Å"pity† and â€Å"fear†. For example the tragic hero is a man of noble rank, he reaches pinnacle of happiness and worldly success. In Act II, with his position as commander of Cyprus and reunion with his wife Desdemona: Othello proclaims to Desdemona and those gathered in Cyprus: â€Å"If I were to die to die, ‘Twere now to be most happy; ( Act II.i.181-182) His hyperbolic speech conveys Othello’s happiness, as it is at its peak at this point in the play. His tragic flaw however, leads to reversal of fortune (peripeteia). Othello’s tragic flaw is manifested as his gullibility, by his â€Å"free and open nature†, that Iago exploits to bring about Othello’s down fall, creating â€Å"pity† and â€Å"fear† which is elicited during the play. After Othello’s death, order is restored in the end, leaving the audiences to experience catharsis and feel a sense of loss, just as Aristotle intended it to be. The portrayal of Othello in Act I is juxtaposed to the Othello in Act III and IV, he is very different, he is portrayed as a physical and psychological wreck. Whereas in Act, Othello is afforded epithets, such as â€Å"valiant† and â€Å"noble moor: the use of the hyperbole creates a heroic tone, enabling the audience to identify Othello as the tragic hero. Othello fits the first criteria of an Aristotle theory of tragedy, a man of noble character, in Act I and II. However through Iago’s gulling, Othello begins to lose control, which is shown through his language â€Å"Zounds.† He becomes crude in his language like Iago. He exclaims â€Å"Goats and Monkey† echoing Iago’s earlier words: â€Å" Were they as prime as goats, as hot as moneys, As salt as wolves in pride, and fools as gross As ignorance made drunk. This portrays Othello’s peripeteia, following his harmatia ; his trust in the opportunist Iago which elicits â€Å"pity and fear†. The fact Othello uses taboo blasphemous language reflects the Jacobean perception of typical moor. At this point on stage, Shakespeare is conveying the stereotypical image of moor; a savage black man. One could say Shakespeare was using such a portrayal to please and entertain his racist audience. Or Shakespeare’s purpose could have been to educate his audience about how Othello’s tragic flaw can cause jealousy to unravel the â€Å"green eyed –monster†, which consumes Othello’s noble character and evokes â€Å"pity† and â€Å"fear†. As Othello deteriorates, his jealousy, anger and subsequent thirst for revenge is reflected in his language. Othellos own words seem to prophesy his downfall: †¦perdition catch my soul But I do love thee! And when I love thee not . Chaos is come again., III.3.90-92) This is the first time Othello’s admitted vulnerability to Iago, the Machiavellian. At this point Othello loves Desdemona unequivocally but ironically his words foreshadow the â€Å"Chaos† to come. The audience know Iago’ has hatched a plan to â€Å"turn her virtue into, pitch† and â€Å"emesh them all† (II.iii.329) .This rising fear, prepares the audience to predict inevitable events â€Å"chaos.† Act III scene iii, also known as temptation scene; it is here that Othello begins to disintegrate; his peripeteia comes with the relentless pressure placed on him by Iago. At this point the fear evoked from the audience as the equilibrium of Act II deteriorates into â€Å"Chaos†. Othello’s inter-racial marriage with Desdemona was frowned upon in sixteenth century. At the time interracial marriage were considered unnatural and immoral act. Even the sixth president of America, John Quincy Adams regarded this marriage as: ‘The great moral lesson of Othello [Shows] black and white blood cannot be intermingled in marriage without a gross outrage upon the law of Nature.’ I disagree with this critic, it is a lack of Christian morals of the characters (Iago, Barbantio and Roderigo) that has made Othello seem like an outsider, resulting in this â€Å"outrage to occur. For instance the hostile environment has forced Othello to trust â€Å"honest Iago†. Iago abuses Othello’s trust makes him feel racially inferior. We feel pity for Othello has he is alienated from the great dignitaries of Venice as well as his wife. Perhaps this is why Othello’s rude behaviour is justified in Act IV onwards as he is black man responding to racism [Actor Patrick Stewart]. In Act I, Othello responds to racism in non-passive approach, through eloquent dialect â€Å"pardon me†, However in Act Iv Othello feels racially inferior, alienated and loses control and responds in aggressive manner â€Å"strumpet† . I think his behaviour is justified as he unaware of the real situation, and feels alienated. As the play progresses and Iago’s machinations and plans take shape, Othello’s speech declines from prose to verse; he speaks in broken sentences: â€Å" Lies with Her? Lie on her? we say lie on they belie on her. (IV.1.135-136) The structure of Othello speech signifies that Othello is not in right state of his mind; his speech is quick paced and lacks coherence reflecting his â€Å"broken† mind. Even Desdemona has noticed the poignant change in the Othello â€Å"my lord is not my lord†. This begins to create â€Å"pity and fear† for Desdemona, she is too naive to realise his jealousy. The audience feel great pity for Desdemona and fear Othello as he [strikes her]. The stage directions play an important role. Dramatists have often portrayed Desdemona being thrown dramatically and her cheeks appearing bright red. The eponymous hero at this point could be seen eponymous villain, as begins adopt anti- hero like qualities. For instance Othello â€Å"be whoring† of Desdemona, the slap in public follows his vow to â€Å"chop her into messes†; such a change indicates the pollution Iago has created in his mind. This highlights the chaos emerging and destruction of order, inspiring pity and fear Desdemona as well for Othello. The fact that Shakespeare initially portrayed Othello as honourable and brave amplifies his peripetia; and reduction to a mad vengeful, abusive husband and incoherent speaker, all due to Iago’s influence. Othello’s incoherence ramblings reveal his jealous and confusion, culminating in a physical and emotional breakdown at his lowest point he falls into epilepsy. His noble character is abolished through Iago â€Å"pour pestilence into his ear. The metaphorical â€Å"poison† Iago use to â€Å"pour† in Othello’s ear is symbolic of Iago’s nature, to destruct and to kill. We feel pity for Othello as Iago â€Å"poison† is metaphorically killing him. The handkerchief is a useful prop that provides â€Å"ocular proof.† The â€Å"handkerchief†, was seen as a romantic token of love, in sixteenth century and in the play it was Othello first gift to Desdemona. The fact Desdemona does not have the handkerchief turns Othello’s doubt into certainty. Othello values the handkerchief and Iago takes advantage of this and makes malicious use of the handkerchief: Her Honour is an essence that’s not seen: They have it very oft that have it not. But for the handkerchief- (Act IV.1.16-18) Although his tragic flaw will precipitate his inevitable downfall, it is the cruelty of Iago that results in this. Iago exploits Othello’s insecurities. He relates â€Å"her honour to the â€Å"handkerchief†, enabling him to subtly plot an honour killing in Othello’s mind. This infers Othello is much more self-conscious about his honour then Desdemona fidelity, because in Venetians and Renaissance society a man’s honour was closely linked to his wife’s behaviour. Iago will use this insecurity to gain control over Othello. Iago’s lies are so successful that it results Othello echoing his words â€Å"handkerchief† ( Act IV.1.22). This attitude of Othello elicits the audience’s pity. In addition Desdemona’s lie about the handkerchief â€Å"It is not lost â€Å"[Act III . IV.79], forces the audience to lose sympathy with her as they did with Othello in Act III, as it could be seen that she was partially responsible for her own death. This act gives Iago luck, allowing him to present handkerchief as â€Å"ocular proof† to Othello. Although it may been seen that Desdemona is partly responsible for this outcome, we can also infer that Othello ‘s hubris ; his arrogance and belief in Iago has prevented him to confront Desdemona. The society at the time, believed that men were superior to women. Perhaps such a great general and man of authority believed it was beneath him to directly ask about Desdemona infidelity. It is not only Othello that evokes fear, Iago’ s soliloquies can also create fear in the audience. They illustrate his true motives; his soliloquies support the theme of deception, â€Å"I am not what I am† the declarative allows the audience to see a Machiavellian character emerge. It also infers Iago has duplicitous nature. The Audiences will fear Iago as he presented as dangerous figure. Also this statement mimics the Biblical God; in exodus God says â€Å"I am what I am†; and just like a god, Iago controls the dynamics of the play. The monosyllabic declarative create suspense as well as anticipation, as we are unaware of his abilities. The fact that he is referred to â€Å"Honest Iago† creates dramatic irony, as the audience are aware of his duplicitous nature and the characters on stage are not. Desdemona is â€Å"honest† to Othello, she remains faithful, and her innocence is juxtaposed in his perception of her character as the â€Å"whore of Venice†. The use of ironies evokes the audience to feel pity for Desdemona, as she the helpless victim. They also feel pity for Othello as he being manipulated. The final scene of Othello is very cathartic. It purges emotions, as the audience feel both â€Å"pity† and â€Å"fear† for both Desdemona and Othello. We feel there is a sense of waste and loss. The deaths of Desdemona, Othello and Emilia were â€Å"unnecessary†, because these characters were innocent puppets of Iago’s game. Othello briefly returns to his former glory through his Ananogrosis O fool [ActV.ii.320], he regains his dignity returns to speak in former figurative language â€Å"Drops tears as fast as the Arabian trees†. In my opinion, Othello suicide was way to redeem him. The sense of loss in the play is profound by evoking â€Å"pity and fear.† Reference

Sunday, October 20, 2019

USS Lake Champlain - CV-39 - Korean War

USS Lake Champlain - CV-39 - Korean War USS Lake Champlain (CV-39) - Overview: Nation:  United States Type:  Aircraft Carrier Shipyard:  Norfolk Naval Shipyard Laid Down:  March 15, 1943 Launched:  November 2, 1944 Commissioned:  June 3, 1945 Fate:  Sold for scrap, 1972 USS Lake Champlain (CV-39) - Specifications: Displacement:  27,100 tons Length:  888 ft. Beam:  93 ft. (waterline) Draft:  28 ft., 7 in. Propulsion:  8 Ãâ€" boilers, 4 Ãâ€" Westinghouse geared steam turbines, 4 Ãâ€" shafts Speed:  33 knots Complement:  3,448 men USS Lake Champlain (CV-39) - Armament: 4 Ãâ€" twin 5 inch 38 caliber guns4 Ãâ€" single 5 inch 38 caliber guns8 Ãâ€" quadruple 40 mm 56 caliber guns46 Ãâ€" single 20 mm 78 caliber guns Aircraft: 90-100 aircraft USS Lake Champlain (CV-39) - A New Design: Planned in the 1920s and 1930s, the US Navys  Lexington- and  Yorktown-class aircraft carriers were designed to meet the tonnage constraints established by the  Washington Naval Treaty. This placed limitations on the tonnage of various classes of vessels as well as installed a ceiling on each signatory’s overall tonnage. This approach was extended and revised by the 1930 London Naval Treaty. As the global situation worsened in the 1930s, Japan and Italy decided to depart the treaty system. With the failure of the agreement, the US Navy elected to advance efforts to create a new, larger class of aircraft carrier and one which incorporated the lessons learned from the  Yorktown-class. The resulting vessel was wider and longer as well as included a deck-edge elevator system. This had been utilized earlier on  USS  Wasp  (CV-7). In addition to carrying a more sizable air group, the new design included a more powerful anti-aircraft armament. Construction began on the lead ship,  USS  Essex  (CV-9), on April 28, 1941. With the attack on Pearl Harbor and US entry into  World War II, the  Essex-class soon became the US Navys primary design for fleet carriers. The initial four vessels after  Essex  followed the class original design. In early 1943, the US Navy made several alterations with goal of enhancing future vessels. The most noticeable of these changes was lengthening the bow to a clipper design which allowed for the mounting of two quadruple 40 mm mounts. Other changes saw the combat information center moved under the armored deck, improved ventilation and aviation fuel systems, a second catapult on the flight deck, and an additional fire control director. Called the long-hull  Essex-class or  Ticonderoga-class by some, the US Navy made no distinction between these and the earlier  Essex-class ships. USS Lake Champlain (CV-38) - Construction: The first carrier to commence construction with the improved Essex-class design was USS  Hancock  (CV-14) which was later re-named Ticonderoga.   This was followed by a multitude of ships including USS Lake Champlain (CV-39).   Named for Master Commandant Thomas MacDonoughs victory at Lake Champlain during the War of 1812, work began on March 15, 1943, at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard.   Sliding down the ways on November 2, 1944, Mildred Austin, wife of Vermont Senator Warren Austin, served as sponsor.   Construction rapidly moved forward and Lake Champlain  entered commission on June 3, 1945, with Captain Logan C. Ramsey in command.   USS Lake Champlain (CV-38) - Early Service: Completing shakedown operations along the East Coast, the carrier was ready for active service shortly after the war ended.   As a result, Lake Champlains first assignment was to Operation Magic Carpet which saw it steaming across the Atlantic to return American servicemen from Europe.   In November 1945, the carrier set a trans-Atlantic speed record when it sailed from Cape Spartel, Morocco to Hampton Roads in 4 days, 8 hours, 51 minutes while maintaining a speed of 32.048 knots.   This record stood until 1952 when it was broken by the liner SS United States.   As the US Navy downsized in the years after the war, Lake Champlain was moved into reserve status on February 17, 1947.   USS Lake Champlain (CV-39) - Korean War: With the beginning of the Korean War in June 1950, the carrier was reactivated and moved Newport News Shipbuilding for an SCB-27C modernization.   This saw major modifications to the carriers island, removal of its twin 5 gun mounts, enhancements to internal and electronic systems, rearrangement of internal spaces, strengthening of the flight deck, as well as the installation of steam catapults.   Leaving the yard in September 1952, Lake Champlain, now designated an attack aircraft carrier (CVA-39), began a shakedown cruise in the Caribbean in November.   Returning the following month, it then departed for Korea on April 26, 1953.   Sailing via the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, it arrived at Yokosuka on June 9.    Made flagship of Task Force 77, Lake Champlain commenced launching strikes against North Korean and Chinese forces.   In addition, its aircraft escorted US Air Force B-50 Superfortress bombers on raids against the enemy.   Lake Champlain continued to mount attacks and supported ground forces ashore until the signing of the truce on July 27.   Remaining in Korean waters until October, it left when USS (CV-33) arrived to take its place.   Departing, Lake Champlain touched at Singapore, Sri Lanka, Egypt, France, and Portugal on its way back to Mayport, FL.   Arriving home, the carrier began a series of peacetime training operations with NATO forces in the Atlantic and Mediterranean.    USS Lake Champlain (CV-39) - Atlantic NASA:               As tensions in the Middle East spiked in April 1957, Lake Champlain raced to the eastern Mediterranean where it operated off Lebanon until the situation calmed.   Returning to Mayport in July, it was re-classified as an anti-submarine carrier (CVS-39) on August 1.   After briefly training on the East Coast, Lake Champlain departed for a deployment to the Mediterranean.   While there, it provided aid in October following devastating floods in Valencia, Spain.   Continuing to alternate between the East Coast and European waters, Lake Champlains home port shifted to Quonset Point, RI in September 1958.   The next year saw the carrier move through the Caribbean and conduct a midshipmen training cruise to Nova Scotia.   In May 1961, Lake Champlain sailed to serve as the primary recovery ship for the first manned spaceflight by an American.   Operating approximately 300 miles east of Cape Canaveral, the carriers helicopters successfully recovered astronaut Alan Shepard and his Mercury capsule, Freedom 7, on May 5.   Resuming routine training operations during the next year, Lake Champlain then joined in the naval quarantine of Cuba during the October 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.   In November, the carrier left the Caribbean and returned to Rhode Island.   Overhauled in 1963, Lake Champlain provided aid to Haiti in the wake of Hurricane Flora in September.   The next year saw the ship continue peacetime duties as well as take part in exercises off Spain. Though the US Navy desired to have Lake Champlain further modernized in 1966, this request was blocked by Secretary of the Navy Robert McNamara who believed that the anti-submarine carrier concept was ineffective.   In August 1965, the carrier again aided NASA by recovering Gemini 5 which splashed down in the Atlantic.   As Lake Champlain was not to be further modernized, it steamed for Philadelphia a short time later to prepare for deactivation.   Placed in the Reserve Fleet, the carrier was decommissioned on May 2, 1966.   Remaining in reserve, Lake Champlain was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on December 1, 1969 and sold for scrap three years later. Selected Sources DANFS: USS Lake Champlain  (CV-39)NavSource: USS  Lake Champlain  (CV-39)USS  Lake Champlain  (CV-39) - Air Groups

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Week 7 posts 6330 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Week 7 posts 6330 - Assignment Example The fact that its goal is to educate the students shows that there is focus to the beneficiaries. The evaluation of the relationships at home and the workplace is important since these two are closely related. The post regarding the evaluation model you chose to educate registered nurses in the local hospice was very interesting. I support the fact that the hierarchical model you chose is useful in that it uses multiple aspects to form the evaluation. These aspects include the process, outcome, content, impact, and the program as a whole (Keating, 2011). The only proposal is to look for a wide range of feedback mechanisms to improve the efficiency of the evaluation. The formative evaluation model you chose is very impressive. This is because of the ready availability of the tools to measure input, processes, support systems and outcomes (Keating, 2011). The use of an accrediting agency review to improve this program quality increases its efficiency. This is good in that it helps to recruit the right faculty, and student

Friday, October 18, 2019

World History.The Effects of Slavery on Slave Owners Essay

World History.The Effects of Slavery on Slave Owners - Essay Example This paper seeks to attempt to try and validate the claims that although the entire commerce that was seen to exist between slave and master can essentially be considered to be a perpetual exercise exhibiting the most boisterous passions, with one part being marked by a degrading submission and the other being fundamentally characterized by unremitting despotism. In order for one to better understand the effects that slavery is seen to have had on the slave owners, it is important that one first grasps an understanding of what exactly is meant by the use of the term slavery. Slavery can be defined as being the condition or status of a given person where by the powers that are commonly seen to be attaching to the rights of ownership are seen to exercised. The person over whom slavery is being exercised is seen to be denied of all the basic human fundamental rights by the owner who regards the person as being mere property. Slavery was seen to have some rather wide ranging effects on t he individuals who practiced it ranging from the people that actually capture the slaves and resell them, the merchants engaging in slave trade as well as the individuals that purchase these slaves and become slave owners. While engaging in slavery is seen to have caused a large number of the slave owners to become

Thomas Jefferson Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Thomas Jefferson - Term Paper Example It reads however that Thomas Jefferson authored â€Å"of the Declaration of American Independence, of the Statute of Virginia for religious freedom, and Father of the University of Virginia, and as he wished â€Å"not a word more† (The Declaration). Historians could want to add some more accomplishments as, for example, his distinction as a naturalist, linguist and as an architect yet in the main they would surely concur with Jefferson’s own assessment. The author of Declaration of American Independence was born in present day Albemarle County, Va., on 13 April, 1743. Although Jefferson himself treated lightly his ancestry his mother came from one of Virginian pioneer families; his father was a prosperous landowner yet not of the class the most wealthy planters. Between 1760 and 1762 Thomas Jefferson studied at the College of William and Mary. Seven years later he started building Monticello on the plot he had inherited from the father (Bennet, 23). Since 1774 when Jefferson wrote his firs political pamphlet, A Summary View of the Rights of British America his fame began to reach beyond his native state of Virginia. Debating on the basis of the theory of natural rights, Thomas Jefferson claimed that the colonies were not obliged to give allegiances to the king. He asserted that â€Å"the God who gave us life†¦ gave us liberty at the same time: the hand of force may destroy, yet can not disjoin them† (Peterson) After being elected to the Second Continental Congress held in Philadelphia, Thomas Jefferson was appointed on 11 June, 1776 to preside at the committee of five in preparing the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson was its primary author, though after consultation with John Adams and Benjamin Franklin the draft was amended substantively by the Congress. Based on the same theory of Natural rights that is contained in A Summary View, the Declaration of Independence brought Jefferson the

Partitioned views Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Partitioned views - Research Paper Example The tables that take part in the partitioned view have either the same or extremely alike structures as far as the names of the column, the types of data, the precision and scale are concerned. These needs to be similar if one wishes to have a read-only view or they must be the same if one wishes to allow updates in the course of the view (Views- Partitioned, 2012). In this organization, each of the servers that take part in the partitioned view are required to be linked as servers on the servers present locally where the view is identified. Portions of the entire set of data are contained in the tables on each of the servers. Thus a table can be split horizontally through the use of partitioned views enabling the achievement of the most advantageous performance. Partitioning column is referred to the column that performs the task of splitting the larger table into the smaller ones. The partitioned views are put into practice all the way through remote that is distributed queries (Views- Partitioned, 2012). â€Å"Partitioning  enables you to decompose very large tables and indexes into smaller and more manageable pieces called  partitions. Each partition is an independent object with its own name and optionally its own storage characteristics† (Partitions, Views, and Other Schema Objects, 2011). With the use of a partitioned view, partitioned data that are arranged horizontally are joined from a set of member tables transversely one or more servers, making it appear as if the data comes from a single table.  Federation of database servers, referring to the group of servers controlled autonomously, is capable of being implemented through the use of distributed partitioned views (Creating a Partitioned View, 2012). The advantages of partitioned views can be understood as follows (Partitioned Tables and Indexes, 2002): Data management operations are enabled through partitioned views. These include data loads, index creation and rebuilding. This also

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Decision in Paradise part III Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Decision in Paradise part III - Case Study Example Given the technological opportunities available to the company, it is believed that it would be in a position to make a significant contribution to the economic rehabilitation and restructing in the island, Kava. The company which employs Nik has a large organizational structure and a wide capital base which could take care of the massive investments needed in Kava, both in terms of preventive and rehabilitation interventions, mainly intended to enhance the standard of living of the people, through improved use of natural resources. Besides effective and result-oriented executives like Nik, the company also possesses the expertise of the technical savvy and widely experience Director of Strategic Planning, Alex, who is familiar with all aspects of life and living on this island. (Strategies in Decision Making). Moreover, the local government and the military would also be in a position to extend the needed support and guidance to the company. While the cultural aspects are, no doubt, important, it is imperative that the company is able to harness the potencial of the local natives, through vocational guidance, counseling and training, in order to make them productive and utilize the natural resources and wealth for the benefit of the natives, through the organizational and technical skills of the company. In order to further reestablish and consolidate its position, it is necessary to improve the skill sets of the natives and translate it into profits for the company. The profits that accrue to the company could be partly utilized for welfare schemes for the natives, and for investments in advanced technologies that would bring quicker and larger profits for the company in the future. For attaining this, the company also needs to take into close confidence the religious and social groups functioning in the island, so that socio-economic developments could be translated into economic gains for the country.Action plans needed for implementation of the decisions: 1. Since the island Kava is susceptible to natural calamities and disasters, it is first of all necessary to set into place an effective Disaster Management Program Committee to effectively address and counter these issues. This committee would comprise of international experts on natural calamities and would also have sub-committes having functional heads, on various important aspects like funding, administration, training and losses assessment, rehabilitation and Recovery. It is necessary that these committes report regularly to the company and are well managed and supervised by it. The

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

The Rise and Fall of the HP Way Case Study Essay

The Rise and Fall of the HP Way Case Study - Essay Example What was the HP Way? In the HP Alumni Association, Inc. (2012), it was revealed that the HP Way had five clearly stipulated corporate values to wit: â€Å"We have trust and respect for individuals. We focus on a high level of achievement and contribution. We conduct our business with uncompromising integrity. We achieve our common objectives through teamwork. We encourage flexibility and innovation† (HP Alumni Association, Inc. 2012). The date stipulate for these corporate values to be designed, instituted and implemented within the organization is in 1992. Accordingly, the HP corporate objectives designed as early as 1966 focused on seven explicit goals: (1) profit, (2) customers, (3) field of interest, (4) growth, (5) employees, (6) organization, and (7) citizenship (HP Alumni Association, Inc. 2012). ... Governance under Carly Fiorina Case facts revealed that Carly Fiorina was a former sales executive that was hired to shake up HP. She was reported to become HP’s Chairman and CEO in 1999, three years after the death of one of its founders, Dave Packard. It was specifically noted that she was hired from external sources and was instrumental in changing various corporate values that were identified to be an integral part of the HP Way. From among the tranformations attributed to Fiorina were: (1) mishandling of lay-offs; (2) valuing profits more than people; (3) creating a ‘cult of personality’; and (4) creating a culture of fear (Dong, 2002, p. 1). To expound on the aspect of laying-off employees, according to Jaime Ash, a retired engineer who stayed with HP for more than 28 years, the HP way that employees and management had been talking about focused on â€Å"co-workers (who) were reassigned to new jobs rather than fired; how the company for a time implemented a shortened work week for all employees so certain individuals would not lose their jobs† (Dong, 2002, p. 1). In sum, the differentiated practices under Fiorina’s helm and the HP Way are detailed below: Corporate Practice HP Way Fiorina’s Helm Firing/lay-offs Job reassignment Laid-off 6000 employees Corporate culture Trust, respect Distrust, fear Motivational program Motivated by hugs Motivated by fear Management practice To be part of the team; Distant and aloof; decentralized top-down approach Communication practice Open, sharing information Close, secret, discreet Mistakes that Led to HP’s Near Collapse From the information and assessment of the facts, one could

Decision in Paradise part III Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Decision in Paradise part III - Case Study Example Given the technological opportunities available to the company, it is believed that it would be in a position to make a significant contribution to the economic rehabilitation and restructing in the island, Kava. The company which employs Nik has a large organizational structure and a wide capital base which could take care of the massive investments needed in Kava, both in terms of preventive and rehabilitation interventions, mainly intended to enhance the standard of living of the people, through improved use of natural resources. Besides effective and result-oriented executives like Nik, the company also possesses the expertise of the technical savvy and widely experience Director of Strategic Planning, Alex, who is familiar with all aspects of life and living on this island. (Strategies in Decision Making). Moreover, the local government and the military would also be in a position to extend the needed support and guidance to the company. While the cultural aspects are, no doubt, important, it is imperative that the company is able to harness the potencial of the local natives, through vocational guidance, counseling and training, in order to make them productive and utilize the natural resources and wealth for the benefit of the natives, through the organizational and technical skills of the company. In order to further reestablish and consolidate its position, it is necessary to improve the skill sets of the natives and translate it into profits for the company. The profits that accrue to the company could be partly utilized for welfare schemes for the natives, and for investments in advanced technologies that would bring quicker and larger profits for the company in the future. For attaining this, the company also needs to take into close confidence the religious and social groups functioning in the island, so that socio-economic developments could be translated into economic gains for the country.Action plans needed for implementation of the decisions: 1. Since the island Kava is susceptible to natural calamities and disasters, it is first of all necessary to set into place an effective Disaster Management Program Committee to effectively address and counter these issues. This committee would comprise of international experts on natural calamities and would also have sub-committes having functional heads, on various important aspects like funding, administration, training and losses assessment, rehabilitation and Recovery. It is necessary that these committes report regularly to the company and are well managed and supervised by it. The

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Globalisation and environmental sustainability Essay Example for Free

Globalisation and environmental sustainability Essay A global society is marked by new technologically integrated local and international relations which encourage the study of the effects of globalisation and as well as internationalisation of various disciplines in a society which are involved in social interactions. This interactions may be locally based or may involve international relations some of which have a close relationship to political philosophy, international economies, conflict analysis, international laws and policies as well as sociology. Globalisation makes the world more productive and stable. In the past few decades, the global economy has become increasingly interconnected and integrated. This integration is quite evident in the international markets and it has been on a steady increase since the seventeenth century although in the last few years, globalisation has undergone revolution which has given rise to many controversial issues regarding its effects and impacts on the larger global society (Lindert, Williamson 2001). Some researches have indicated that in the last two decades or so, the increased integration in the global markets has resulted in greater inequality in the way income is distributed among nations around the world. In connection to this, Bourguignon and Morrisson (2000) have also observed that combining inequality within and across countries has brought a significant rise in the global inequality since 1960 thus making the already poor countries poorer while the rich countries get richer through globalisation. Globalisation refers to the way in which nations increasingly become interconnected with one another in terms of economic, political, technological, social and cultural aspects. More often than not, the word globalisation is used to refer to the economic aspect of a nation. Economic globalisation describes the integration of national economies into the international economies via trade, migrations, international market capital flows, foreign investments and increased use of technology. The increasing rate of globalisation as has been experienced in the past two decades or so has led to rapid growth of global trade, financial capital flows, direct foreign investments and cross border trade transactions (Johnston, Taylor, Watts 2002). The major facilitators of this growth include improved transport and communication infrastructure, improved technological know-how, quicker methods of telecommunication and internet services. In addition to this, globalisation has been favoured by removal of trade barriers and policies across nations which previously inhibited international trade among nations. This has now liberalised trade and encouraged more export and import transactions which promote globalisation. The establishment of international trade organisations such as world bank, IMF and WTO have also played a significant role in facilitating globalisation as they are devoted to promoting trade and investment across nations worldwide. The result of this kind of globalised trade is presence of multinational companies (MNCs) whose budgets exceed those of the economies of many nations in which they are situated (Atkison 1999). Globalisation and sustainability. In the recent years, many controversies have emanated from the issue of globalisation. It is now seen an unnecessary evil which is threatening the social and environmental sustainability of the global societies. Globalisation is viewed by some people as an opportunity for national and international economic growth while others feel that it is a threat to economic prosperity, political sovereignty and cultural integrity (Jussilla, Cullen 2002). People in developed countries are particularly concerned with the fact that globalisation poses a threat to unskilled workers who are bound to be left jobless with the increased technological methods of production in the contracting industries. On the other hand, the developing nations are mostly concerned about the loss of political powers and sovereignty as well as loss of economic prosperity which is bound to be brought about by globalisation. According to Bhalla (2002) the whole concept of globalisation is surrounded by ideological issues both positive and negative which in the long run affect the people or societies in the globalised world. , the controversial aspect of globalisation can not be easily resolved. Globalisation and environmental sustainability. Environmental sustainability refers to the aspect of addressing the needs of the current global societies fully while being cautious not to compromise the needs of the societies which are to come,that is, future generations. According Heinberg (2005), globalisation has directly or indirectly led to several environmental issues such as global warming, increased deforestation, depletion of the ozone layer, destruction of water catchment areas, biodiversity, most natural resources have reached or are nearing depletion levels, pollution of water, air and the entire environment among others. For instance, globalisation has enabled MNCs to invest in countries which have few or no environmental conservation by-laws and this results in high environmental degradation as well as depletion of natural resources. However, the WTO in response to this effect has argued that the large amounts of income or capital flows earned from globalisation are capable of catering for the environmental degradation and this is bound to improve the quality of the environment to even higher standards that it were in before. In addition, globalisation has led to increased industrialisation all over the globe and this has resulted in the much dreaded effects of depletion of the ozone layer and global warming. Global warming comes as a result of release of industrial pollutants from the manufacturing industries into the environment. Such pollutants include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of sulphur and so forth. The effects of global warming are quite evident all over the globe as they have led to diverse changes in weather and climate resulting in drought and famines in some parts of the world among other effects. The depletion of the ozone layer occurs as a result of release of chemicals such as freons and fluorocarbons in to the air which react with ozone layer hence thinning it (Bellow 2001). However,there are several positive effects of globalisation in relation to environmental sustainability. Precisely, globalisation has led to improved methods of energy utilisation, substitution of resources especially those occurring naturally, innovation of metal recovery and material recycling methods, dematerialisation of resources among other positive practices (Eiezen, Maxine 2006). Globalisation has particularly been putting great emphases on dematerialisation and this has helped industries to improve their efficiency in production, minimise and manage their waste production and reduced the production costs through use of cheap systematic procedures. In addition, the use of improved technological methods has made companies to adopt newer and more efficient methods of energy utilisation and as a result, the energy requirements in industrialized countries have substantially reduced in the recent years. Moreover, many non-renewable energy resources have been substituted with renewable sources of energy and this has greatly reduced the risk of depletion of such resources in the near future. Although the improved technology has great positive effects on the environmental sustainability, globalisation is negatively associated with the exportation and use of technologies and activities that can have detrimental effects on the environment. All these environmental effects of globalisation have either a direct or an indirect impact on the global societies. Lack of clean water for instance is a negative effect which is likely to cause diseases and suffering to the larger population. On the other hand, improved energy efficiency, advanced technology and industrialisation translates a greater advantage to the people living in the globalised world in terms of better quality consumer products, free exchange of goods, capital and services between nations among others. Globalisation and social sustainability. On the aspect of social sustainability, globalisation plays a very important role in terms of improving or lowering the social status of the people living in globalised world. Experts have argued that globalisation tends to impose a greater disadvantage to the poor countries while at the same time it favours the already developed nations (Bellow 2001). They add that although globalisation is believed to favour free trade among nations, it lead to much inequality between the developed and the under developed countries since the developing countries are unable to compete favourably with the developed countries in the international markets (Agyeman, Bullar, Evans 2003). In addition, the increased use of technology is bound to render many people jobless especially the unskilled workers, since most of the work which was previously done manually by the people is now easily done by machines. This reflects negatively on the society especially in the poorer countries since when people do not get jobs to do, they are likely to suffer from starvation, poor health, illiteracy among other social problems (Walker 2005). On the positive side, globalisation allows free movement of people across nations as they trade and this has promoted cultural diversity, intermarriages, tourism and so forth. This has further promoted peace,understanding and unity between individuals as well as nations. It is thus clear that globalisation has some critical impacts on the social lives of individuals an groups living in the industrialised countries. Identities and powers based on globalisation and sustainability. The last one decade or so has presented a turbulent phase for the global societies marked by globalisation and resurgence in the identity politics or religion based politics. Globalisation being a process of ongoing capitalism-industrialisation has had some adverse effects on the poor strata of the society. According to Heiberg (2005), the nature of globalisation is contradictory in that it divides the world as much as it unites it. Movements fundamental to globalisation are based on empathy, ideology and identities. The lives of people living in global societies are largely shaped by conflicting trends of globalisation and identity and current events in the world indicate that community identities are threatened by the forces of globalisation. One effect of globalisation on the societal political structure is the emergence of socialist states which came into being in the mid-20th century ushering in the beginning of an industrial society. The intensified rate of globalisation has led to a rise of America as a lone super-power in the world, decline of the power and authority exercised by the United Nations, decline in the amount of Non-Aligned movement, a rise in Fascist-fundamentalist politics among countries and worsening of the problems experienced by the poor in the society. While globalisation is believed to result in a democratic world economy, the political democracy system in the world is stifled in form of emasculation of the potential world government. As the national economies become more and more globalised, the world political powers become more and more centralised into one or a few nations of the world. This power monopoly is a negative effect of globalisation as it leads to a decline in democratic norms and projection of identity politics. Identity politics involve competition over scarce resources which could in principle be taken to mean struggle for political power or economic wealth resources. This kind of competition seems to favour only the rich and mighty residing in the wealthy and powerful countries leading to a form of discrimination. As a result, globalisation makes the people in rich countries continue becoming richer as those in poor countries become more poor by the day. In this case it is clear that although globalisation is capable of empowering a nation both economically and politically, the power distribution is unequal and this puts some nations at a higher political power advantage than others. Conclusion. Beyond doubt, globalisation has led to significant increase in per capita income of different nations which have fully accepted this process and applied effectively the technological advancements which come with it. It can however be seen that, globalisation has pushed most developing or Third world countries along the path of diminishing sustainability and this has not in any way been improved by the recent regulations made in the globalisation processes. For instance, the deregulation of global trade in the recent past has led to a decrease in the environmental and social-cultural constraints associated with globalisation but this kind of deregulation has failed to address the issues of sustainability. In conclusion, it is clear that the current globalisation process is quite unsustainable but with a few policies to govern it properly, the process is capable of bringing much success in the long run to all nations world wide as well as to people as individuals in the globalised world. Reference. Atkinson, G., Dubourg, R. , Hamilton, K. , Munasinghe, M. , Pearce D. , 1999. Measuring sustainable development. UK: Edward Elgar Publishers. Agyeman, J. , Bullard, R. D. , Evans, B. , (eds. ). 2003. Sustainability: Development in an Unequal World, London: Earthscan. Bello, W. F. 2001. The Future in the Balance: Essays on Globalization and Resistance. Oakland, Calif: Food First Books. Bhalla, A. S. 2002. Globalisation and Sustainable Development: A Southern African Perspective, International Journal of Technology Management Sustainable Development, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 40-57.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Diversified in industries and electronics

Diversified in industries and electronics Introduction Initially, Samsung started out as a small export business in Korea. It then diversified in industries and electronics. The company has been responsive to change and opportunity in global business brought by the digital era with its constant innovation and attractive, marketable products.1 As a result, Samsung is now positioned as one of the world recognized leaders in the digital technology industry. The Samsung World Headquarters is located in Seoul, Korean. 1 History In 1938, founding chairman Byung-Chull Lee started a small trade export business in Taegu, Korea. In the 1970s, Samsung invested in the heavy, chemical and petrochemical industries as a foundation for future growth. Samsung also incorporated its manufacturing processes from raw materials to end products which further enhance its position in the worlds textile industry. Samsungs core technology businesses diversified and expanded globally during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Soon after, two research and development (RD) institutes were created. This boost its reach even further into electronics, semiconductors, high polymer chemicals, genetic engineering, optical telecommunications, aerospace and new fields of technology innovation from nanotechnology to advanced network architectures. In the mid-1990s, Samsung revolutionised its business aiming to make world-class products, provide total customer satisfaction and be a good corporate citizen. Samsung has constantly developed advance d technologies, competitive products and constant innovation 1. Main Technologies and Capabilities Main Capabilities Research and Development Innovation is at the heart Samsungs business success. To be competitive in the new digital age, Samsung maintains and strengthens its market dominance through the speedy introduction of new technology. The company has placed high importance to the interplay of creative, imaginative human resources, a global RD network, a strong collaboration among business partners all along the supply chain, and the commitment to ongoing investment. Currently, Samsung is making historic advances in RD of semiconductor products, especially flash memory and non-memory, custom semiconductors, DRAM and SRAM, LCDs, mobile phones, and digital appliances1 Eco Samsung Samsung has displayed its strong commitment and responsibility for the world environment. It has made efforts to develop environmentally-friendly products which consume low levels of energy and which contain no hazardous materials. The company has also modified its assembly processes to cut down carbon emissions substantially.2 Main Technologies Samsung comprises of companies that have become market leaders in a wide range of business, from electronics to financial services, from chemicals and heavy industries to trade and services. All the businesses are setting new standards in innovation, constantly generating high quality products and services.3 Owing to Samsungs large RD sector, many new technologies and innovative designs emerge. Below are a few of the newest technologies developed by Samsung. Main Markets, Products and Competitors Markets Samsung Group consists of numerous international affiliated businesses such as Samsung Electronics, Samsung Heavy Industries, and Samsung CT. These three multinational core businesses of Samsung Group signify their strong foothold in the electronics, shipbuilding and construction markets. Besides that, Samsung also plays a part in the financial, chemical, retail and entertainment markets. 1 Samsung reports a strong presence in its home country of South Korea as its market share in telecommunications is 18.87%. 1 Samsung appeals to the global market as it is the most popular consumer electronics brand since 2005 with 7.55% of global market share in telecommunications1. Products Samsung first started moving into businesses such as insurance, securities and retail. Later, upon borrowed foreign investments, Samsung ventured into the telecommunications industry with Samsung Electronics. With the support of South Korean President; Samsung developed the first dynamic random access memory chip. 1Most importantly Samsung are leading in the production of memory chips, chipmakers and liquid-crystal display panels. 1 Considered as a strong competitor in the world of electronics, Samsung highlighted innovative strategy and expanded production rapidly to become the worlds largest producers of DRAM chips, flash memory, optical storage and recently liquid crystal displays. In addition Samsung strives to improve by delivering innovative products such as the TV and monitor industrys thinnest LED TVs and most compact colour laser printers and multifunctional devices. Being a global leader in telecommunications equipment; Samsung plays the role in development of the next gene ration of 4G-network. 1 Competitors According to the Figure 1 below; Nokia is clearly the main competitor as it holds 37% of the mobile phones sales global market share. In 2009, Samsungs touch screen devices, QWERTY phones and smart phones drove sales in mature markets with 19% of the global market share7. LG poses 11% as a competitor as it moves into lower-tier devices which drive growth in emerging markets. It is also well positioned to take advantage of Chinas 3G Rollout as it can deliver good-value-for-money devices. Motorola has 11% market share which is reasonably smaller, however with its presence rapidly concentrated on the American it serves as a competition in the American market. Being in a competitive market, Sony Ericsson at 5% of the global market share attributes its poor performance to its uncompetitive range of handsets such as exploiting trends like QWERTY products. Therefore Sony Ericsson is a smaller competitor compare to Nokia and other phones such as Apple, HTC, and Blackberry. Nokia is Samsungs biggest competitor due to its early investments in GSM technologies therefore making the company into the worlds largest mobile producer manufacture. Up to date Nokia produced various innovative products such as the first 3G phones, Ovi internet services and N-series multimedia phone. Nokias revenue is reported to be 9.3 million Euros. 9 Its success is due to its high investment in the RD which is present in 16 countries, representing 31% of their total workforce. 8 Nokia phones are also seen as being highest quality as they have a highly recognizable packaging style which operates with an aggressive marketing strategy hence elevating them above their competitors. Samsungs Innovative Activities Samsungs ambition to become one of the worlds top companies is supported by continuous pursuit in innovative RD and building a distinctive brand. As stated in the Annual Report 2008, approximately 40 %( 42,100 researchers) of Samsungs global employees are involved in RD to develop cutting edge technologies1. Samsung Advanced Institute in Technology is the global hub of Samsungs RD organization which includes Mechatronics and Manufacturing Technology Centre and 14 overseas centres7. In 2008, Samsung obtained 3,515 patents in the US with an increase from 2007 placing them in second place in the annual patent ranking. To further push forward in a variety of market and customer focused brand marketing programs, Samsung successfully completed their role as the official wireless equipment partner of the 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympics Games. 7 In 2008, Samsungs investment of 6.9 trillion KRW which represented 9.5% of parent company sales brings in technological breakthrough such as 256GB solid-state drive, 90nm high-performance smart card chip, 82-inch 120Hz quad-HD-resolution TV panel, and a Mobile WiMax II (802.61m) solution.1 This also enables innovations like front-load washers with time, energy and wear-saving â€Å"bubble wash† technology and the industrys most compact colour laser printers. Following these success, Samsung plans to invest 7.9 trillion KRW in RD to support future development of tomorrows technology. 7 RD Structure and Priorities Table 2: Core business research areas at SAIT10 Research in Product Areas Descriptions Computer Science Drives long term differentiation of Samsung platforms(phones, TV) by combining Computer Science with Consumer Electronics Research involves building tangible artifacts like prototypes so that we can learn from the process of building them Current research: situation awareness, Intelligent Web Media and trusted platforms Situation awareness develops novel, optimal personalized services leading the next generation of personalized mobile technology Intelligent Web Media pioneers technologies such as new phenomenon in which all TV content is available on the Internet can be streamed or dowloaded directly to the TV Trusted platforms researches on strong protection of device firmware for network providers and users Wireless Connectivity Research in developing a wide range of cutting edge wireless techniques such as beam forming to initiate ubiqitous wireless connectivity with various data requirements up to multi-giga bits per second Digital Media Solution(DMS) Advanced Algorithm: engaged in research and development related to theories, algorithm, and application of image and video processing for Samsung Digital TVs Core Platform: Actively researching to provide Internet Protocol Television to provide internet and cable connectivity Future User Experience: develop user interface designs from conceptualization through prototyping to implementation Advanced Printing Solution Research in Software Architecture Technology enabling the efficient development of increasingly complex software Research areas in System Technology involves new features protoypes and etc Current and future research areas in Solution Software Technology are core research related to Web technologies and application of Web Services to printers Storage To develop quiet hard drives with highest storage capacity and lowest power consumption Organisation of RD Samsungs RD organisation run in SAIT consists of three layers: Samsungs technology competitiveness in core business areas identifies growth engines for the future and securing, and management of technology. The RD centres of each business focus on technology that is expected to deliver the long-term results. Division product development teams are responsible for marketing products due to hit markets in a short period of time. From the Figure 2, the organisation is shown to be a hybrid between centralised and decentralised RD. It is a simplified diagram of the organisation of Samsung RD involving SAIT and two of their centres in their global network of RD. Samsungs RD network consist of six centres in Korea and 18 centres in 9 different countries such as United States, United Kingdom, Russia, Israel, India, Japan and China. 11 These various RD centres and their distribution into research areas such as Dallas Telecom Laboratory that research on technologies and products for next-generation telecommunications systems. Innovation Strategy Firms Innovation Strategy Background and Strategy â€Å"By implementing this newly established RD plan, we can develop the technology that will drive Samsungs future.† -Hak-Soo Lee, vice-chairman of Samsung Electronics said.14 Samsung Electronics instituted many RD centres globally to enhance in-house product design. The first centre was established in Osaka, Japan, followed by another in Frankfurt, Germany to focus on products for the European markets.15 In the same year, Samsung Electronics established a research centre to address product planning needs in South-East Asian markets. In November 2000, Samsung Electronics targeted to transform itself into a â€Å"Digital -eCompany†, capable of leading in digital convergence. The company upgraded the development model from division-centric into portfolio-centri16. This aimed to multiple divisions and units to create integrated solutions for home networks, mobile networks, office networks and core-component business portfolios. With these initiatives, Samsung Electronics pursued four key areas: RD, design, brand marketing and corporate citizenship. Investment in Design and RD RD is an important innovation strategy at Samsung. RD and design centres developed technologies which is being used to produce products. Samsung Electronics employed more than 40000 engineers17 in its RD department, and 3,200 held PhDs. Samsung Electronics attributed its leading position in the industry to four main factors: creative people in the organization who could develop technologies; co-operation among business partners throughout the supply chain; the firms ability to explore and penetrate new markets; and the speed of innovation and product development18. Users-Centric Design Philosophy Samsung Electronics applied the design philosophy into its products and stressed that â€Å"design and creative strengths were at the heart of corporate competitiveness.†19 This reflected a concept of a balance between reason and feelings, from which Samsung Electronics developed a scale with â€Å"reason† on one end and â€Å"feeling† on the other to measure perfection of design. The products manufactured by Apple Computer Inc (â€Å"Apple†) occupied the â€Å"feeling† zone with an emphasis on simplicity of products, whereas Sony products tended toward the â€Å"reason† zone with lots of complex features.20 However, Samsung Electronics designers balanced â€Å"reason† and â€Å"feeling† by rationalizing the design of products using geometric and technological parameters and then enhancing the design such that products made an emotional connection with the user. Over 700 highly skilled designers in different design centres conducted various research projects in the fields of industrial design, graphic design, interaction design, human factors, lifestyle research; creative business-planning, visual brand strategy, materials exploration, colour theory and computer-aided design. Global Localization strategy Global Localization strategy is adopted, through which designers developed product design blueprints according to global design standards and themes, while remaining flexible enough to allow local design centres to accommodate specific market needs and cultural contexts.22 A simple example is explained by, Younghee Lee, vice-president of marketing, that beautiful design of mobile phones could be appreciated by a Parisian or Indian, but noted that the Indian user, who often lacked a reliable electricity supply, needed a longer-lasting battery than a Parisian.23 The Global Localization strategy helped Samsung Electronics establish itself as an innovative and first-class consumer electronics company. EXHIBIT 1: SAMSUNGS DESIGN PHILOSOPHY: BALANCE OF REASON AND FEELING Fast Follower To overcome the companys image as a producer of cheap products, Samsung Electronss product diversification differentiated the company from its key competitors, many of which were focused on single or smaller numbers of products. Apple, for example, specialised in portable music players and held a major share in the global market for these devices. Nokia and Motorola were best known for mobile phones, and Sony focused on consumer electronics. The market trends and technological, also the competitive circumstances impacts on its innovation strategy, which has a lots of reason to reveal that Samsung Electron is fast follower, although some brand-new design of products were launched. Protect its innovations Samsung Electronics strategy of combining product design, RD and brand management turned the firm into a leader in the consumer electronics market. Samsung Electronics operated six RD centres in South Korea and a total of 16 centres in eight different countries. These RD centres developed technologies that could be commercialised in the near future. The CTO developed proprietary technologies, managed the deployment of key technologies and guided the overall RD process within the organisation. This highly efficiency of organization system is not easily imitated by the rivals in a short period of time. Thus, it has enough evidence to believe that a large amount of RD spending combined with brand management as well as the effective organization system is able to protect its innovations. Patents and Achievement During seven years from 2001, Samsung Electronics received 19 awards at the International Design Excellence Awards (â€Å"IDEA†). In 2006, the company registered 17,377 patents worldwide, including patents aimed at fusion technology, nanotechnology and biotechnology24. In 2007, Samsung Electronics held a dominant worldwide market share25for LCDs and TVs. The company unparalleled edge and leadership in RD and design were underscored by awards for 32 of its products at the CES Innovations 2008 Awards. Challenges for the Future Competition in the consumer electronics market was fierce, as many global players entered the market with large product portfolios. Digital convergence invited more companies from related industries such as software, PC and network services to enter the market. Entry of such new players further intensified the competition. Competitors of Samsung Electronics such as LG, Nokia, Panasonic, Sony and some Chinese firms had started investing heavily in RD and product design. All major competitors adopted the concept of localizing their product design to suit target markets. The design advantage of Samsung Electronics started to diminish as product design strategies and processes became commoditized. Samsung Electronics had to devise strategies to defend not only its position in the market, but also its profitability in the competitive environment. Advancements in technology had shortened product lifecycles and product replacement had become a key driver for revenue growth. Samsung Electronics invested about 9% of net sales in RD of newer technologies, features and designs to offer newer products and attract customers. However, some of its competitors, including Apple, Sony and LG Electronics, had significantly lower RD expenditure per product. Firms such as Philips, Dell and Motorola were adopting outsourcing of product design to lower RD costs and shorten time-to-market. These brands were buying product blueprints and technology from contract manufacturers and independent design firms such as IDEO, Quanta Computer, Premier Imaging, HCL Technologies and Wipro Technologies. Companies took varying approaches to design outsourcing. For example, HP contributed key technology and design to its computers, whereas Dell preferred to adopt entire designs from its design partners. Motorola bought complete designs for its low-end mobile phones but kept tight control over the development of its high-end cell phones, such as the Razr. However, outsourcing of product design and RD raised serious concerns about intellectual property rights, product management, integrity and incubation of new competitors. For example, Motorola outsourced the design and manufacturing of its mobile phones to Taiwanese manufacturer BenQ. In 2004, BenQ started selling the mobile phones in the Chinese market under its own brand, which resulted in termination of its contract with Motorola. Considering the immediate urge to optimise RD costs and potential concerns associated with design outsourcing. References Samsung INC. (2009) [Online] Available from Samsung INC. (2009) [Online] Available from Samsung INC. (2009) [Online] Available from Samsung INC. (2009) [Online] Available from Gartner Newsroom: Nokia Connecting People: Story of Nokia Appsolutely Everything: Samsung Market Share: Nokia: Mobile Revolution: Nokia: Biz Covering: Samsung Research and Development: Samsung RD Center(SISA): Kim, Y. (1997) â€Å"Technological Capabilities and Samsung Electronics International Production Network in Asia†, BRIE Kim, Y. (1997) â€Å"Technological Capabilities and Samsung Electronics International Production Network in Asia†, BRIE Working Paper 106, p. 20 Newswire (8 November 2005) â€Å"Samsung Companies Announce 5-Year, 47 Trillion Won Investment Plan† Kim, Y. (1997) â€Å"Technological Capabilities and Samsung Electronics International Production Network in Asia†, BRIE Working Paper 106, p. 26 Samsung Electronics (2001) â€Å"Annual Report† Samsung Electronics (2007) â€Å"Annual Report† Samsung Electronics (2007) â€Å"Annual Report† Samsung (2006) â€Å"Annual Report†, p. 41. Breen, B. (2007) â€Å"The Seoul of Design† Delaney, M., et al. (2002) â€Å"Global Localization†, Global Design and Cultural Identity Ibid., p. 44. Ewing, J. (2008) â€Å"Samsungs New Marketing Push†, BusinessWeek Samsung Electronics (2006) â€Å"Annual Report† Samsung Electronics (2007) â€Å"Annual Report†.