Saturday, August 31, 2019
States undergo a lot of challenges and face dilemma in the current globalization era. Globalization has led to the integration of various world economies and this requires openness to the economy of the world, serving the interests of the nations, and competition for relative advantages at national level as international capitalism demands. The evolution of the global economy in the west in the late 1980s and 1990 aroused the desire for competitive advantage among regional trading blocs in the area of trade, finance, manufacturing and technology and this also led to the birth of the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (Ciccantell, 2001). NAFTA was formed in 1994 as part of the economic integrationist revival of the period and it marked a significant shift of the U. S. trade policy (Pastor, 2004). NAFTA incorporates the economies of three countries-the U. S. , and Canada in the north and Mexico in the south. According to Cavanagh and Anderson (2002) NAFTA is a complex set made up of trade and non-trade bargain issues which advance North America towards closer ties of economy. This essay gathers information from various economic literatures that discuss the NAFTA formation and implementation process. The central idea is the paradox in which a least developed country, Mexico forms a treaty with the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most advanced economies in North America. This relationship is of tremendous interest to economic scholars and observers. Circumstances that led to the formation of NAFTA in the 1994 are evaluated in this essay as well as factors that almost hindered the implementation of the treaty. The essay further evaluates the benefits that NAFTA has on the participating economies. This will be followed by a discussion of the challenges that the implementation of the treaty faces. Possible solutions to overcome the challenges are recommended. An Economic Integration Perspective International economics involves the integration of the economic practices of various countries within a global scale. Economists have described various dimensions of international economic integration and these include trade liberalization in goods, direct foreign investment, trade in services, liberalization of capital flows, free labor movement, environmental protection rules, a World Trade OrganizationÃ¢â¬â¢s (WTO) -managed rule-based system for trade in goods and services, and established intellectual property and patent rules (Ciccantell, 2001). Theoretically, countries can meet these dimensions without resorting to a regionalism model. However, in practical sense, countries meet to regionalize more for political than economic reasons as a way of dealing with the globalization challenge (Fox, 2004). Contrary to this, some scholars recommend that market-orientation factors should be the main drivers of economic integration in the current globalization era (Funk, Elder, Yao & Vibhakar, 2006). Although already established, some economists view NAFTA as an on-going process in which the end product is not yet confirmed. The future of regionalization is mostly determined by domestic and regional factors as opposed to globalization although regional and global forces are responsible for driving North America into closer economic ties. Carranza (2002) asserts that the future of NAFTA depends on the policy makersÃ¢â¬â¢ deliberate act as this will determine whether NAFTA will resolve into an institutional deficit or develop into a deeper integration. Circumstances that could have hindered the formation of NAFTA Mexico, which was to be part of the North American economic integration, had first opposed an allied relationship with the northern colossus because of a negative historical experience (Skonieczny, 2006). Mexico had lost almost half of its territory in the 1846 to 1848 Mexican-American war (De la Balze, 2001; Skonieczny, 2006). Secondly, Mexico strived to maintain an independent foreign policy, which sought closer alliances with the South and Central America and the Caribbean (Skonieczny, 2006). According to Carranza (2002), it is still a puzzle as to why Mexico later decided to form an economic partnership with the North America countries from a very weak position. The country also paid a very high domestic political price by agreeing to join the NAFTA. However, the economic situation in Mexico and the labor market was deteriorating, and the political situation was unstable after a negative eventful election in the 1988 (Philip, 2008). The government also featured corrupt and authoritarian episodes. Inflation was hitting the country at a high rate, economic growth was stagnant and living standards were poor. Additionally, Mexico had a significant amount of national debt that was un-payable. Trade liberalization seemed the most political consequential (Faber, 2007). On the other and, there was a looming fear in the US that the economic integration would lead to loss of jobs in the US while in the South there were cries for revolution (Pastor, 2004). Nevertheless, Mexico was eager to access the larger U. S. market despite the observersÃ¢â¬â¢ opinion that the U. S. is unlikely to abide by the trade accord (Castaneda, 2008). U. S. had been known of having a poor record in international treaties implementation and its previous treatment towards Mexico in issues like immigration policies left a doubt on Mexico as to whether the country would be left out of the agreement implementation despite their being one (King, 2005). The Central America and Caribbean countries that were allied to Mexico feared that there could be an erosion of the already existing trade preferences if the NAFTA was formed (Baker, 2008). The countries faced the dilemma between free trade in the open regionalism and protectionism. Furthermore critics viewed the formation of NAFTA as a state-led project although the members denounced the classical state intervention mechanisms in bid to soften the globalization effect. The Founding of NAFTA The formation of NAFTA was considered inevitable because of the market and trade conditions in the globalization period that necessitated an economic integration (Baker, 2008). However, the formation process was not smooth-sailing because of the various uncertainties that occurred in the wake of well developed countries wanting to merge their economies with the less developed ones. This was evident in the negotiation process in which there was asymmetry of both political and economic powers and Mexico lacked a non-agreement alternative. The formation of NAFTA also lacked the accompaniment of institutionalization and there lacks a common governance unto which NAFTA can be identified. In Northern America, the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations in the 1990s was progressing slowly and thus this made the regional integration an attractive option (Carranza, 2002). The formation of NAFTA started as a unique regional economic integration process between a less developed country, Mexico in this case; and two industrial powers- the U. S. and Canada (Davidson, 2008). This was the first economic agreement on a regional basis to include various forms of integration. Some of the integrated economic activities cited in most literatures include foreign investments, financial services, government procurement and intellectual property rights. On the contrary, the Uruguay Round global trade negotiations did not feature all of these revival strategies. The U. S. presented NAFTA as a trade liberalization model in the western hemisphere in the early 1990s as a way of continental regionalism. On the other hand, the Latin American countries were not ready to embrace this model because of the doubt they had on the U. S. intention of seeing the agreement through the future. It was easier for the U. S. to control the agenda if the negotiation was on a regional rather than a multilateral level (Hufbauer& Yee, 2003). This would enhance more of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic, political and institutional perspectives in comparison to the rest of the world. It was paradoxical that the economically successful U. S wanted a free trade agreement with the less developed Mexico. Carranza (2002) asserts that the U. S agreed to negotiate with Mexico about the free trade on condition that Mexico did not invoke any exclusion of key areas such as the area of oil that is sovereign sensitive. On the other hand, Mexico did not have any vital concession to base its negotiations in the status of a developing country. Nevertheless, despite this unequal negotiation ability, Philip (2008) highlights the irony by showing that the process was presented as a negotiation of the equals. NAFTAÃ¢â¬â¢s goals, objectives and economic models NAFTA is a trade treaty which aims to eliminate custom duties on transaction between the U. S, Canada and Mexico. NAFTA has formed the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest free trade zone whereby around 406 million people produce more than 11 billion U. S dollars worth of products (Page, 2002). The agreement which establishes NAFTA entails that the U. S, Canada, and Mexico pursue certain common objectives. Trade in services has been liberalized and government procurement markets including construction and services procurement markets have been opened through the NAFTA. Therefore, through the agreement it is illegal for the parties to discriminate between the domestic and foreign producers in the government markets, investments and trading of services (Adikson, Zimmerman, 2004; Diep, 2008). NAFTAÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives therefore include eliminating custom barriers and enhancing cross-border trade in products and services (Vaughan, 2004). The treaty is also to guarantee conditions of equitable competition in the free trade area. The treaty strives to improve trilateral cooperation so as to extend the benefits of the agreement. One of the main goals of NAFTA was the need to increase the flows of trade and investment in North America. Consequently, the agreement has succeeded in increasing MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s and CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s trade dependence on the U. S. NAFTA also incorporated the less developed Mexico, in order to give the country a chance to prosper by joining the North America economies (Flores & Lankshear, 2000). NAFTA is a widely researched economic phenomenon that occurs as economists try to understand the three NAFTAÃ¢â¬â¢s economies models. The gravity model has been used to explain the trade flows as the function of the importer and exporter market size a well as the distance between the two. Funk, et al. (2006) asserts that any extraordinary flows can be accredited to free trade agreements only after the market size and importer-exporter distances have been accounted for in the trade flow process. This has led to some economists showing that NAFTA generally does not have a significant effect on bilateral trade flows although it has the impact on the net trade creating. Benefits of NAFTA to the US, Mexico and Canada The implementation of NAFTA inspired the economists to measure the treatyÃ¢â¬â¢s effect on the three NAFTA economies-U. S, Mexico and Canada (Funk et al. , 2006). The North America economic integration was seen as one that would be of benefit to the participating countries. Mexico would have a chance to gain access to the larger U. S. market while the U. S. also searched for new foreign investment opportunities in the country (Carranza, 2002). Proponents of NAFTA view the agreement as detailed and comprehensive and have constantly given the accord praise for showing that less developed countries like Mexico can accept new rules in international politics in this globalization era and thus improve their situation. On the other hand, critics assert that NAFTA lacks basic safeguards to protect the people who are excluded from liberalized trade and investment benefits considering that almost over half of the Mexican population lives below the poverty line (Baker, 2008; Serra, & Espinosa, 2002). The critics further argue that NAFTA is just a mere element of a larger problem; that is, globalization has a disintegrating effect on a mixed economy and the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s social contract. On a moderate view, critics agree that formation of NAFTA was not a bad idea at all but without regional governance and regional institutions, the agreement remains unfulfilled (Pastor, 2004). Hufbauer and Yee (2003) cites NAFTA as an exemplary agreement for a new or an open regionalism that opens a whole range of novel issues which are designed to prepare the less developed countries of Latin America and Caribbean for the globalization challenge. The issue of why the U. S pulled Mexico into the North integration is very controversial although the positivists assert that the U. S government has a very strong interest in the political and economic stability of Mexico (Skonieczny, 2001). Mexico was able to attract a considerable ratio of foreign direct investment in the 1990s as a result of NAFTAÃ¢â¬â¢s negotiations. The predicted economic breakdown of Mexico in the early 1990s never lived to happen as the country underwent economic transformation. Philip (2008) asserts that NAFTA is responsible for the economic and political stability in Mexico. NAFTA has given this chance to Mexico through encouraging trade and investment opportunities. The social progress of the country is also underway and NAFTA aims to eradicate the high poverty levels in most of MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s dwellings. NAFTA also provided the hope for Mexico to transform its worsening economic condition and urban challenges in the City of Mexico (Stracke, 2003). The Mexican government adopted the policies of democratization and free trade policies amidst controversies with the aim of preventing the country from an economic breakdown. Currently, Mexico could not be as developed as the U. S. and Canada for that matter but looking way back in the 1990s to early 200s, it can be said that the country has become macro-economically stable (Philips, 2008). Mexico is among the richest Latin America countries in terms of per capita and has more than twice export per head as compared to Brazil. Exports of manufactured goods from Mexico to the U. S contribute to around 25 percent of MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s gross domestic product and the market is even more liberalized than it was in the years ago. Another benefit of NAFTA to the Mexican economy includes the checking of inflation (Stern, 2007). Although inflation occurs at some instances it does not reach three digits as in the 1990s but securely maintained at single digits. Other areas of the economy that have improved with the economic integration include the education system. The number of Mexicans with degrees from influential world universities has increased and expected to rise. The condition in the Mexican universities has also improved as better preparation of lectures takes place and a fairer democratic environment ensures that there is a stable learning environment. MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s rapturous population growth also slowed down with the implementation of NAFTA as most of the population started migrating North in search for better living conditions. A slower population growth enhances strategic planning and development of the country. However, as much as the evidence of economic transformation is noticeable in Mexico, the economic growth rate is disappointingly low. Philip (2008) and Stern (2007) states that the measurement of economy is determined by oligopolies and specifically Pemex, the state-owned petroleum company in MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s case. Mexico continues to suffer from severe social and urban problems such as high poverty rates, organized crime, drug trafficking, and corruption among others (Stern, 2007). As much as these are domestic problems, it is impossible to separate them from MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s membership to NAFTA because domestic institutions also influence the direction of negotiations in the association (Carranza, 2002). Philip (2008) argues that the U. S is also benefiting from NAFTA because the treaty has enabled the existence of a politically and economically conducive environment that Mexico now offers as compared to the times before the treaty. Flores and Lankshear (2000) assert that the developed North America countries in the treaty could benefit from MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s low wage cuts in the labor force. Mexico large population of semi-skilled workers would provide cheaper and abundant labor for the national and transnational companies that seek low wage work. However, Flores & Lankshear (2000) argue that this dependence on a low wage economy undermines the development of a well educated, Challenges in NAFTA The major challenges facing the NAFTA involve the lack of regional governance, asymmetry negotiations, lack of a stabilized relationship between the North and South American countries and lack of common market policies and common currency. Forces of market and trade integration pushed the economies of the U. S and Mexico together but there was little institutional change that took place to reflect the real degree of economic integration among the countries (Adikson, & Zimmerman, 2004). Economic integration in the north occurred without an established regional institution or governance. It is believed that it will be difficult for the North America decision makers to effectively respond to fluidity, competitiveness, and complexity of the world economy without a form of regional convergence. Lack of regional governance also indicates a lack of a permanent mechanism for consultation among the three governments (Heron, 2002). This proves difficult especially in cases which the countries have to deal with other common challenges like drug peddling and immigration and this sometimes push for a bilateral involvement, for instance between the U. S and Mexico. The lack of common or institutionalized NAFTA governance has led to the in dependent pursuance of other third party treaties by Mexico and Canada (Heron, 2002). NAFTA also promised to create regional barriers to the outsiders so that the insiders would receive relative gains as far as trade and other economic gains are concerned (Flores & Lankshear, 2000). However, Cavanagh and Anderson (2002) argue that NAFTA simply assumed that this would take place magically enabling the people to benefit from the free market policies, and that the three governments-U. S. , Canada, and Mexico-would resolve older and newer problems naturally. However, through the condition in Mexico, it is certain that the agreement has not brought much change to the living standards of the individuals. The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s record is extremely mixed concerning the free trade policy and the country is yet to unanimously agree on the agreement (Carlsen, 2006). Mexico has not gained the privileges that were promised if the country joined the North America relationship. Mexico did not gain a greater place in the Northern-dominated international institutions such as the International Monetary fund (IMF) or the World Bank. Mexico remains poor and less developed despite being part of the supposedly economic rejuvenator-NAFTA. NAFTAÃ¢â¬â¢s negotiations did not consider the economic and development asymmetries between Mexico and the U. S and this also contributed to the exclusion of majority of Mexican population from the free trade benefits (Cox, 2008). NAFTA was supposed to give Mexico a chance to prosper through joining the Northern club. However, the moment Mexico decided to start negotiations with the U. S for a free trade agreement, it was found that Mexico still needed to make other sweeping concessions in order to gain access to the U. S market. Mexico presented an overstaffed and underperforming institutions, an opposite of the North America countries which have the most performing institutions (Flores & Lankshear, 2000). Mexico was forced to make the bigger compromises and adjustments because after all, it was the weaker party. This also shows that majority of the decisions were made by the tremendous powers in the agreement-the U. S, and Canada. This can be proved from an economic angle in which the GDP of the U. S alone forms 90 percent of the total North America economy (Carranza, 2004). It is unrealistic that during negotiations, Mexico would be expected to steer the decision-making process into finality. How does Mexico and Canada establish strategies on how to access the U. SÃ¢â¬â¢ over 8 trillion dollar market when all the 2 countries can offer is 250 and 500 billion dollars markets respectively? The Mexican experience has proved that the Southern countries cannot necessarily experience economic development with social justice through seeking alliances with the U. S even in this globalization era. Mexico also undergoes a painful adjustment process because being part of NAFTA; it is forced to compete openly with the far more advanced economies of the North America countries (Cavanagh & Anderson, 2002). NAFTA if implemented strategically can have a voice in the global trade talks. However, the lack of a common governing in institution hinders this representation because it would appear as though one country or the other is representing its own views rather than that of NAFTA. Cavanagh and Anderson (2002) argue that the failure of NAFTA to meet its alleged expectations can be blamed on the current economic conditions. The marketplace is globalized and thus highly mobile employers gain more power to suppress workers who fight for a fair gain of their benefits. However, this remains unchallenged because such firms ally with governments who in turn are desperate for foreign investment. This leads to the suppression of the hoistÃ¢â¬â¢s nationÃ¢â¬â¢s labor force through low wages and poor working conditions. The unfortunate side is that the agency that is set up under the labor side agreement of NAFTA has proved incapable of holding governments and corporations accountable for violating the rights of workers (Cavanagh & Anderson, 2002). There have been alleged complaints of workerÃ¢â¬â¢s rights violations in all of the three NAFTA economies but other than a bit of public exposure, not much justice has been yielded. Lack of common governance is to blame for the loose policy of ensuring that all the parties in the agreement benefit positively. There is also a looming fear that a future Mexican leadership could decide to pull out of the NAFTAÃ¢â¬â¢s agreement because of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s inconsistent views on NAFTA and the lack of institutionalized rules for the agreement. Recommendations NAFTA took place amidst controversies especially from part of MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s population and the South and Central America countries. Moreover, a supranational institution and an ideal NAFTA identity are lacking. This poses a danger to the stability of the economic integration of the North American countries. North America needs to tackle the gaps in the North-South relationships and also increase aggregate wealth. One way of doing this is through enhancing regional governance through the use of common currency for the member states. However Cavanagh and Anderson (2002) assert that the issue of establishing a common currency can lead to further controversies. First of all, the U. S. and Mexico are not in the same currency zones as compared to the likeability of the U. S. and Canada. This will negatively alienate Mexico further. Still on the issue of a common currency, Carranza (2002) argues that it is certain that the U. S public opinion would not support a monetary union between U. S. and the two countries. The U. S needs to come to terms with having neighboring countries with difficulties in tackling money integration issues and the de facto dollarization of the economy of Mexico. This should also be accompanied with the building of appropriate institutions that would realistically introduce North America as a community of nations. The NAFTA countries need to establish a regional governance system that would ensure that all the member population is fairly treated without prejudice (Carlsen, 2006). Social justice should be enhanced within the NAFTA economies and the established policies should fairly uplift the standards of all the countries (Anderson, 2003). Rather than using the large semi-skilled MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s labor force for cheap, low-wage labor, there should be policies or strategies in which NAFTA can contribute to the establishment of better education and vocational training systems (Ma del Rosio, Camen, & Humberto, 2007). The criticism directed at the treaty will subside if it is observed that the member states are striving to raise the standards and conditions of one another rather than using each other for selfish gains. Conclusion This essay has comprehensively discussed the factors pertaining to the formation and implementation of NAFTA. The North America economic integration awakened the interest of many economic researchers and observers because of the coming together of powerful North America economies and a southern least developed economy. Although the reason for such a relationship was met with criticism and a lot of controversies, proponents viewed it as an opportunity for Mexico to improve its political, economical and social environment. The U. S the most developed North America country viewed the relationship as an opportunity to expand its globalization boundaries as well as create a stable economic and political condition for trade in the region. However, critics believe that it is for the best interest of the U. S while Mexico risks the chance of being sidelined. Nevertheless, Mexico has recorded an economic transformation and it is believed that if policy makers implement some strategic measures in the treaty, then Mexico stands a greater chance of becoming a developed nation. This has provided the U. S with a stable political and economic environment without which the security of the U. S may have been at stake. NAFTA faces various challenges but the lack of regional governance is seen as the source of most of the challenges. NAFTA lacks international identity in contribution of international trade discussions. Additionally, treaty are known to be created where all the participants have an almost equal bargaining power even though they will not be dealing with exchange of similar products or services. However, in this case, the negotiations take an asymmetry approach because Mexico is in a compromised state in which its position does not allow it to challenge the decisions of the U. S. , the most developed economy. As a result, the negotiations are based, on an unequal level. NAFTA leaders especially from the North need to understand the gap between the north and south populations and provide democratic decisions that will be best appreciated by both sides. Economic integration is significant in this global era in which market and trade forces have pushed for market liberalization conditions. List of References Adikson, R. , Zimmerman, L. 2004. Ã¢â¬Å"Retail trade on the US Mexico order during the NAFTA implementation era,Ã¢â¬ Growth & Change, vol. 35(1): 77-89. Anderson, S. 2003. Ã¢â¬Å"The equity factor and free trade,Ã¢â¬ World Policy Journal, vol. 20(3): 45-51. Baker, L. 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Local food networks and maize agrodiversity conservation: Two case studies from Mexico,Ã¢â¬ Local Environment, vol. 13(3): 235-251. Carlsen, L. 2006. Ã¢â¬Å"Armoring NAFTA: the battleground for MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s future,Ã¢â¬ NACLA Report on the Americas, vol. 41(5): 17-22 Carranza, M. 2002. Ã¢â¬Å"Neighbors or partners? : NAFTA and the politics of regional economic integration in North America,Ã¢â¬ Latin American Politics and Society, 44(2): 141-158. Castaneda, J. 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Morning in Latin America,Ã¢â¬ Foreign Affairs, 87(5): 126-139 Cavanagh, J. , & Anderson, S. 2002. Ã¢â¬Å"Happily ever NAFTA,Ã¢â¬ Foreign Policy (132): Cavanagh, J & Anderson, S. 2002. Nice theories, sad realities,Ã¢â¬ Foreign Policy, (132): 62 Ciccantell, P. 2001. Ã¢â¬Å"NAFTA and the reconstruction of U. S. hegemony: The raw materials foundations of economic competitiveness,Ã¢â¬ Canadian Journal of Sociology, vol. 26(1):57-87. Cox, R. 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Transnational capital, the U. S state and Latin American trade agreements,Ã¢â¬ Third World Quarterly, vol. 29(8): 1527-1544. Davidson, M. 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"On the outskirts of form: Cosmopoetics in the shadow of NAFTA,Ã¢â¬ Textual Practice. 22(4): 733-756 De la Balze, F. 2001. Ã¢â¬Å"Finding allies in the back yard,Ã¢â¬ Foreign Affairs, vol. 80(4): 7-12. Diep, K. 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Wavering amigos,Ã¢â¬ Harvard International Review, vol. 30(1): 9-10 Faber, B. 2007. Ã¢â¬Å"Towards the spatial patterns of sectoral adjustments to trade liberalization: the case of NAFTA in Mexico,Ã¢â¬ Growth and Change, vol. 38(4): 567-594.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Blake's Poetry is multivocal, allusive and intertextual rather than directly expressive; philosophic rather than immediately intelligible.Ã¢â¬ With this assertion as a point of departure I will present a critical discussion of the two poems, Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' and Ã¢â¬ËThe Tyger' from Ã¢â¬ËSongs of Innocence' and Ã¢â¬ËSongs of Experience' respectively, paying attention to both form and content. The two poems offered here from Ã¢â¬ËSongs of Innocence' and Ã¢â¬ËSongs of Experience' clearly support the statement that Blake's poetry is multivocal, allusive and intertextual. Both Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' and Ã¢â¬ËThe Tyger' seem to be alluding to certain social norms and perceptions of the time when they were written and the two of them both clearly express different feelings or opinions of the forces at play in the world around us. The two poems are clearly inter-related as they both seem to offer contrasting opinions of the nature of beings and their creators, and because of the direct reference made to the lamb in the poem Ã¢â¬ËThe Tyger'. Upon closer inspection of the poem Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb', we see, in lines 5 to 8, Blake offering an almost serene description of a lamb. Describing the lamb in terms of its tender voice which makes all the vales rejoice, its soft woolly coat being that of delight, and its feeding Ã¢â¬Å"by the stream & o'er the meadÃ¢â¬ (Watson 1992: 133). Blake uses very soft and mostly monosyllabic words to create a very sombre and tender mood in this poem. The mild tone of the poem adds much to the beauteous image of the lamb that is being created. Throughout the description of the beauty of the lamb the question is also being posed of who created the lamb, as is evident in the opening two lines of the poem Ã¢â¬Å"Little Lamb, who made thee?Ã¢â¬ /Ã¢â¬ Dost thou know who made thee?Ã¢â¬ and by asking who gave the lamb all its beautiful qualities. The second verse of the poem offers an answer to the question of who created the lamb. The creator, God, is alluded to as an answer by saying that he calls himself a lamb and that he became a little child. Watson (1992: 133) presents the facts that Ã¢â¬Å"the God who made the lamb is called a lamb Himself, because He was crucified (Ã¢â¬ËWorthy is the Lamb that was slain')Ã¢â¬ , and that Ã¢â¬Å"He became a little child at the incarnation.Ã¢â¬ Referring to the creator as Ã¢â¬Ëmeek and mild' continues the serene feeling within the poem that was created at the description of the lamb, and adds to the already blissful view of the lamb because of the fact that they share a name. By looking at the social circumstances of the time when this poem was written, a time of great social and political revolution, where views of authority and people's own self-worth were changing, it becomes possible to give an interpretation of the poem Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' based on these social circumstances. The idea of the lamb and the child both having a name that, at different times, were used as a reference to Jesus Christ could be seen as an allusive way of Blake trying to express the fact that all creatures were created in God's own image of himself. This point serves to enhance the fact that all people, animals and other earthly beings all have equal self-worth within the world. So at a time when people were revolting against the Catholic Churches control over them this poem could be seen as an attempt to highlight the fact that all people are equal and deserve to be treated as equals. If God created all living creatures in his perfect image of himself, which is a Christian beli ef, then all people should be granted the same status as each other. In contrast to Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' we find its counterpart from Ã¢â¬ËSongs of Experience' Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËThe Tyger'. In this poem, as in Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb', there is a question of the Ã¢â¬Å"unseen power behind the tigerÃ¢â¬ (Watson 1992: 146). The difference behind the questioning in this poem is the mood that the questions create. The mood is not peaceful and serene as it is in Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb', but rather the questioning here almost gives the reader a feeling of anger and aghastness at the thought of the same creator who created the lamb creating a creature so fearful as the tiger. The continued use of the word Ã¢â¬Ëdare' leaves the reader feeling as if the whole creation of the tiger was a shameful act. Lines such as Ã¢â¬Å"On what wings dare he aspireÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"what the hand, dare seize the fireÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"what immortal hand or eye/dare frame thy fearful symmetryÃ¢â¬ all help to create and complement this feeling. From the following verse the reader is left with the sense that even the stars were angered and upset at the creation of the tiger: When the stars threw down their spears, And water'd heaven with their tears, Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the lamb make thee? The image of stars throwing their spears and letting their tears fall in heaven, the place where the creator, God, is believed to reside upon, leads perfectly up to the question Ã¢â¬Å"did he smile his work to see?Ã¢â¬ Here the question is posed as to whether the creator was happy and satisfied at his creation of the tiger. Then, in the very next breath, the question is offered as to whether it is the same creator who created both the lamb and the tiger. Thus leaving the reader thinking how it can possibly be that a divine creator can create two such opposite creatures in this world. Turning back to the social context of the time when the two poems were written it is possible then to read two contrasting lines, one from each poem, as direct metaphors for society itself. Firstly, from Ã¢â¬ËThe Tyger' Ã¢â¬â line 2 Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"in the forests of the nightÃ¢â¬ , and secondly, from Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' Ã¢â¬â line 4 Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"by the stream and o'er the meadÃ¢â¬ . The possibility exists that Blake was expressing his fear of the existing society in Ã¢â¬ËThe Tyger' by describing it as a Ã¢â¬Å"forest of the nightÃ¢â¬ , which creates very dark, almost dangerous images of the existing society where one would not find much hope of serenity. The contrasting line from Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb', where society can be compared to a stream and a mead can be seen as Blake expressing his hope for society becoming a place as peaceful and beauteous as a stream or a mead. The tiger then can be related to the people who have control over society at this time. Those people who have Ã¢â¬Ëtwisted sinews of the heart' and who's Ã¢â¬Ëdreaded grasp' instil Ã¢â¬Ëdeadly terrors' into the people who they attempt to control. The revolution then can have its metaphor in Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' where the fears of the people can be replaced by the hope of a life where the Ã¢â¬Ëvales rejoice' at the Ã¢â¬Ësoftness' and Ã¢â¬Ëtenderness' of a Ã¢â¬Ëdelightful' life. In Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' Blake is perhaps expressing a child like innocence at the thought of living life in the perfect image that God has created for man. Moving on to Ã¢â¬ËThe Tyger' Blake might be showing us that with experience our views of the world around us and the way that we exist within it are much harsher than what a child would dream it to be. These two poems are both written in the form of a lyric and are done so in order for Blake to express his immediate thoughts and feelings at a specific point in time. The fairly short length of the poems and the simple rhyming schemes, coupled with the contrasting choice of words in each respective poem add to the immediate effect of the feelings, images and moods created within the poems. The inter-relatedness of the two poems gives the reader a very complete feeling of the mood surrounding the time when they were written. Blake's poetry is clearly philosophic in all concerns and cannot be seen as directly expressive or immediately intelligible. The allusiveness and inter-relatedness of his poetry is clearly expressed in the two poems Ã¢â¬ËThe Lamb' and Ã¢â¬Ëthe Tyger' form Ã¢â¬ËSongs of Innocence' and Ã¢â¬ËSongs of Experience' respectively. These two poems present two contrasting views of a world and a creator that we are all inextricably tied to but all experience under different social and political conditions and are all able to understand and experience completely differently.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
MGT 341 Exam II Study Guide 1. Power (Article and Book) a. Meaning of Power Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"The ability to influence various outcomes: or The ability to Ã¢â¬Å"make things happenÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"get things doneÃ¢â¬ i. Individuals/Groups are presumed to have power based on the following factors: * Ability to cope with Uncertainty * Substitutability Ã¢â¬â the lower the substitutability the greater the power. * Organizational Centrality Ã¢â¬â the more central a person/group is to an organization; the greater the power. Role and Task Interdependence Ã¢â¬â if the activities of a person/group depend on the activities of another person/group -> the latter is considered to have greater control or power. b. Relationship of Power to Authority Ã¢â¬â Power and Authority are closely related to the concept of leadership. ii. Authority Ã¢â¬â Situations in which a person/group has been formally granted a leadership position. iii. Legitimate Power Ã¢â¬â formerly sanctioned by or ganization (Contractual) or informally supported by individual/group (Consensual). iv.Executive / Managerial Power Ã¢â¬â directed towards creating and maintaining an active organization Ã¢â¬â ideal of transforming the organization to itÃ¢â¬â¢s highest potential. c. Appointed vs. Emergent Leaders (Formal vs. Informal) d. Types of Power: Yellow = Position Power Red = Personal Power Positional Power Ã¢â¬â Organization * Appointed leaders / formal power Ã¢â¬â **Most Common Form of Power** * Easily controlled by the organization. * Attributed to the Position rather than the individual. * Appointed from upper level management. 1.Reward Power Ã¢â¬â The extent to which a person controls rewards another person values (Can give people things they want; satisfy needs). 2. Legitimate Power Ã¢â¬â Power granted by virtue of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s position. 3. Coercive Power Ã¢â¬â The extent to which a person can punish or physically/psychologically harm someone else (do bad things to a person). Personal Power Ã¢â¬â Personal/Individual Ã¢â¬â Emergent (i. e. as the individual becomes acclimated to the environment they may Ã¢â¬Å"emergeÃ¢â¬ professionally or when there is a group that does not have an apparent leader figure, one will Ã¢â¬Å"emergeÃ¢â¬ naturally. Attributed to the Individual rather than the organization. * Not easily influenced by the organization. * Influence is Ã¢â¬Å"earnedÃ¢â¬ or gained after Ã¢â¬Å"proving ones self. Ã¢â¬ Expert Power Ã¢â¬â The extent to which a person controls rewards another person values. (Can give people things they want; satisfy needs). 1. Referent Power Ã¢â¬â Exists when one person wants to be like someone else r imitates someone else. (based on admiration and respect). e. Situational Variables that can provide power. v. Ability to cope with uncertainty vi.Substitutability Ã¢â¬â The extent to which someone else in the organization can Ã¢â¬Å"SubstituteÃ¢â¬ for someone else. (The lower the su bstitutability the greater the power). vii. Organizational Centrality Ã¢â¬â the more central a person is to the task or processes of the organization, the greater the power. viii. Role and Take Interdependence Ã¢â¬â If the activities of a person or group are dependent on that of another person/group > the latter has the power. f. Leadership Motive Syndrome Ã¢â¬â The need for power must be greater than the need for affiliation.Must refrain from being perceived as Impulsive, Coercive, or Manipulative. g. Acceptance Theory Ã¢â¬â manager's authority is derived from subordinates' acceptance, instead of the hierarchical power structure of the organization h. Power Gap Ã¢â¬â Difference between formal positional power granted and the actual power required to accomplish goals. ix. How to Ã¢â¬Å"Fill the GapÃ¢â¬ > * Acquiring Information & Ideas * Assess Who has Power * Good Relationships * Interpersonal Skills * Networks (power building tool) * Create Valued Agendas Image & Track Record 2. Leadership: i. Trait Approaches: x. Focus Ã¢â¬âEarly approaches focused on those personal characteristics and attributes- physical, mental, and cultural. The research is often termed the Ã¢â¬Å"Great PersonÃ¢â¬ theory of leadership (it was assumed leaders were different from average people based on personality and physical characteristics) Ã¢â¬Å"leaders are born, not madeÃ¢â¬ . 5 personal characteristics seemed related to effective leadership: intelligence, dominance, self-confidence, high levels of energy and activity, and task-relevant knowledge. i. Problems Ã¢â¬â Relationship between these characteristics and evidence of effective leadership is not particularly strong. In the case of each characteristic, there have been significant studies that have either not shown any relationship with effective leadership or found a negative relationship. Thus, provides an incomplete picture of leadership xii. Reemergence of Interest Ã¢â¬â reemerged as a promisi ng research area, especially in terms of examining specific traits related to the effectiveness/success in different organizational settings.Studies from the 80Ã¢â¬â¢s and 90Ã¢â¬â¢s suggest there are a number of traits that do contribute to effective leadership: Drive, leadership motivation, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, resonance, cognitive ability and knowledge of the business. Alone, these do not guarantee leadership success, but they can help for success. xiii. Key Dimensions for Ã¢â¬Å"MagicÃ¢â¬ or Charismatic Leadership Ã¢â¬â 3 key dimensions are envisioning, energizing and enabling. Ã¢â¬Å"Natural LeadersÃ¢â¬ , energize-inspire, envisioning-create & communicate image, enabling- enable other people * Linking to Results Ã¢â¬â Finding the correct quality that gives you positive results.The results should be balanced, strategic, lasting, and selfless. This link between attributes and results enriches our understanding of the relationship between leader tr aits and leadership effectiveness j. Behavioral Approaches: Focused on the various behavioral patterns or styles used by different leaders and the functions fulfilled by these individuals. xiv. Democratic Ã¢â¬â Leading through group input and decision making. xv. Autocratic Ã¢â¬â Leading by command xvi. Laissez-faire-Leading through minimal participation by the leader and allowance of total group freedom xvii. University of Michigan Studies Ã¢â¬â Research into behavioral aspects of leadership. Were concerned with two different leader orientations: one toward employees and the other toward production. The results suggested that a strong orientation to production resembled the autocratic leadership style, while a strong employee orientation was indicative of the democratic leadership style. xviii. *Ohio State Studies Ã¢â¬â Similar to Michigan studies. Two basic factors derived: initiating structure and consideration for others.See pages 214-215 xix. *Managerial Grid > Conc ern for people and production, uses 5 sections on grid, want managers to be a 9,9. Most popular Concern for People Concern for People Concern for Results (1,1) = LCP & LCR, (1,9) = HFP & LCR, (9,9) = HCP & HCR, (9,1) = HCR & LCP. 1,9| | 9,9| | 5,5| | | | | 1,1| | 9,1| * Based on a Ã¢â¬Å"Concern for PeopleÃ¢â¬ & Ã¢â¬Å" Concern for ProductionÃ¢â¬ * Includes Motivation xx. LikertÃ¢â¬â¢s Linking Pin & System 4 ideas Likert found that the Traditional View of management (close supervision/high structure) only PARTLY explained the roles of managers. * Believed that managers are members of (2) different workgroups 1. Person is responsible FOR. > Subordinates 2. Person is responsible TO (Traditional View of Supervision). > Leaders * Power comes from the ability to excerpt power Upward and Lateral (Peer Managers) * (2) Elements must be looked at: i. Task Component ii. Human Component * Approach consists of Integrated Workgroups. * Managers are members of multiple Workgroups. xi. Sys tem 4- (participative)- supervisors trust their subordinates and goal setting and decision making are collaborative activities. k. Contingency Approaches Ã¢â¬â This perspective suggests that there is no Ã¢â¬Å"one best wayÃ¢â¬ to lead in all situations; rather, the most effective style of leadership is contingent or dependent on the situation. Contingency theories combine the trait approach and the behavioral /functional theories to suggest the most effective leaders are those individuals who can adapt their styles to the demands of a situation, group, or values xxii.Situational Leadership Ã¢â¬â (Life-Cycle Theory of Leadership) pg 225 xxiii. Path-Goal Model Ã¢â¬â The leader affects subordinatesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance by clarifying the behaviors (paths) that will lead to desired rewards (goals). Types of leader behaviors: directive, supportive, participative, achievement-oriented. Situational factor which influence how leader behavior relates to subordinate satisfaction: pe rsonal characteristics of the subordinates, characteristics of environment. xxiv.Vroom-Yetton Leadership-Participation Model Ã¢â¬â pg 227 xxv. Executive Coaching Ã¢â¬â Private meeting to discuss and work on personal learning and development issues. Feedback coaching (consultant)- giving feedback and assisting person in developing an action plan to address need or problems that are observed (360 feedback; 1-6 months, not too intensive) In-depth coaching (counselor)- closer, intimate relationship, multiple assessments and discussion extensively used to develop interpersonal skills, etc. 6-12 months+) Content coaching (tutor)- provide leader with knowledge and skills for specific area (IT, acquisitions, globalization, etc. ; time varies, but relatively short) l. 4. Substitutes for Leadership Ã¢â¬â Leadership substitutes: individual, task, and organizational characteristics that tend to outweigh the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to affect subordinates satisfactions and performance. L eadership neutralizers: factors that render ineffective leaders attempts to engage in various leadership behaviors. m.Empowerment Ã¢â¬â Emphasizes a move away from leader dominance and expert problem solving to a system where organizational members, as the new experts, are continuously involved in organizational decision processes. Tannenbaum & Schmidt Leader Continuum pg 236. Keys to empowerment: 1- important for employees to have information on organizational performance and outcomes. 2-individuals must be rewarded for their contributions to organization performance. 3-team members must be provided with knowledge/skills that enables them to understand and contribute to performance. -individuals must be given the power to make to make decisions that influence work procedures and organizational direction. n. Transactional vs. Transformational Leadership. Transactional Leader- Leader-follower relation one of exchange; narrow view; supervision and Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ leaders (mana gers) Transformational Leader(charismatic)- Visionary, inspirational figure; ability to articulate & communicate vision and charisma to energize and motivate people; strong empathy skills and accurate perception of others; Ã¢â¬Å"changeÃ¢â¬ leaders. dark sideÃ¢â¬ - transformational or Ã¢â¬Å"magicÃ¢â¬ leaders may become captivated by their vision of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s best and their vision may not be appropriate. Focus on what they want to hear, do not learn easily from those around them and may damage organizational performance. i. e. cults and Hitler. Characteristics of narcissistic leaders- 1. Rely on manipulation and exploitation. 2. Impulsive and unconventional behavior. 3. Excessive impression management. 4. Poor administrative practices. 5. Unable to recognize flawed vision. 6. Fail to plan for succession.These can be quite destructive. o. Gender Issues Ã¢â¬â Stereotypes, Research Findings, Ã¢â¬Å"Glass CeilingÃ¢â¬ , Relation to International Expansion Stereotypes inc lude Ã¢â¬Å"masculineÃ¢â¬ characteristics are managerial, Ã¢â¬Å"feminineÃ¢â¬ unmanagerial. Research- Men & women with high needs for power tend to have quite similar characteristics Reasons more women not in power & leadership positions mostly Ã¢â¬Å"institutional sexismÃ¢â¬ (glass ceiling) Many components important to international success are Ã¢â¬Å"feminineÃ¢â¬ - relationship development, communication, social sensitivity (&empowerment) p.Categories of Leadership Ã¢â¬Å"TalentsÃ¢â¬ Direction- vision, concepts, & focus Drive to Execute- achieve, compete, active, ego drive Relationships- relater, developer, networks, stimulate good feelings, team oriented Management systems- performance orientation, disciplined, arranger, strategic thinker 3. Intragroup Dynamics (ESSAY QUESTIONS) q. Reasons Groups Form- Security and need satisfaction, social need satisfaction, esteem need satisfaction, proximity and attraction, group goals, economic reason. Groups are there for a rea son. . Types of Groups Ã¢â¬â Formal vs. Informal; Heterogeneous & Homogeneous Formal- are those that have established task-oriented goals and are explicitly formed as part of the organization- such as work groups, departments, and project teams. Rational, identifiable, exist to serve organization. Informal- are those that emerge over time through the interaction of organizational members. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t have formally assigned or stated goals, they do have implied or implicit goals, which are frequently recreational and interpersonal in nature.Formal vs. informal- a rough distinction between these types of groups is that formal groups are represented on an organization chart, while informal (self-enacted) groups are not. Homogeneous- a group whose members have key aspects in common, in terms of either personal (e. g. attitudes, values, goals) or sociodemographic (e. g. education, age, gender, race) characteristics. Heterogeneous- groups are those that differ along significant dimens ions. s. Stages of Group DevelopmentForming- group member will find out what they will be doing, the kind of leadership and behaviors that are acceptable, and the range of interpersonal and task relationships that are possible. Typically confusion, caution. Storming- described as the Ã¢â¬Å"shakedownÃ¢â¬ , where individual styles come into conflict. Characterized by tension, criticism, and confrontation among members. Constructive conflict can occur. Norming- resistance is overcome as the group establishes its rules/roles and standards. Develops intragroup cohesiveness, delineates (outlines) task standards and expectations.This phase is marked by cooperation, collaboration, cohesion, and commitment . Performing- Accomplish tasks. Typical characteristics include challenge, creativity, group consciousness, and consideration among members. Adjourning/reforming- Closure (celebrate, rewards). Group members must either reassess their mission, roles, and processes or prepare for dissolut ion of the group. t. Group Attributes: xxvi. Individual & Group Status- status refers to the level/position of a person in the group or a group in an organization. Status differences. xxvii.Roles Ã¢â¬â Meaning, Conflict, Ambiguity: Role refers to the various behaviors people expect from a person or a group in a particular position. Role Conflict is playing several roles that elicit certain expectations that often contradict one another. Role Ambiguity refers to when one receives unclear or ambiguous signals about what is expected of us in a particular role. xxviii. Social Identity Theory Ã¢â¬â how group affects people-:Group membership affects membersÃ¢â¬â¢ sense of who they are, how they see themselves, how they feel about themselves and how they act in a group, they become what others expect them to be. xix. Norms Ã¢â¬â What are they; Pivotal vs. Peripheral: are the common standards or ideas that guide member behavior in established groups. Pivotal norms are those that are considered to be particularly important to the group/organization. Peripheral norms in contrast are those that are not as important to group members xxx. Status and Conformity Ã¢â¬â Relationships, Expedient vs. Private: Desire to be accepted by the group, making individuals susceptible to conformity effects. They feel pressure to change their attitudes and behaviors to conform to the groups norms or operative standards.Expedient conformity is when a group member expresses attitudes and engages in behaviors that are acceptable to the group, while holding his private beliefs that are at odds with the group. Private acceptance is when an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s public and private attitudes and beliefs are compatible with the groups norms.. xxxi. Cohesiveness Ã¢â¬â What it means, Factors that lead to it, Impact on people, Electronic or Virtual Groups: Cohesiveness refers to the degree to which group members are attracted to one another and the resulting desire to remain in the gro up.Factors that lead to cohesiveness include mutual attraction amongst group members, similar views, attitudes, likings, performance, and behavior. Impact on people: intergroup conflict pulls members together and encourages cooperation, such conflict may become too powerful leading to intragroup competition that reduces cohesiveness. Electronic or virtual groups can become cohesive xxxii. Group (Org) Commitment Ã¢â¬â Meaning, Affective vs. Continuance; Free Agents.Group (org) commitment is the relative strength of individual group members feelings of identification with an attachment to a groups goals or tasks. Affective(emotionally attached) commitment means they maintain a relationship because they want to have high levels of group organization comfort and job challenge. Continuance commitment means they maintain a relationship because they have concerns about potential loss of pension, benefits, and a lack of other alternatives. *do it because they have to. xxxiii. Social Loaf ing Ã¢â¬â Meaning, How Common, How to deal with it. Reduced efforts of an individual group member when they perform as part of a group compared to individual efforts. Ã¢â¬Å"I wont work hard because someone else in the group will pick up slackÃ¢â¬ . More common in large groups. To deal with it make sure that group members understand the importance of their assignment as well as the mechanisms for group and individual accountability encouraging active participation. u. Lost Moon Exercise Ã¢â¬â v. Groupthink Ã¢â¬â This is a dynamic that diminishes the decision making capability of a group, tryÃ¢â¬â¢s to minimize conflict and reach a consensus.Symptoms of group think include illusion to invulnerability, collective efforts to rationalize/discount warnings, not questioning the group, stereotyped views of Ã¢â¬Å"enemyÃ¢â¬ leaders, pressuring members, self-censorship of deviations, illusion of unanimity, self-appointed Ã¢â¬Å"mind-guardsÃ¢â¬ (mind-gaurds withhold informat ion from a group to keep it in tact). How to guard against Everyone be a critical evaluator, somebody play devilÃ¢â¬â¢s advocate, be impartial, critical thinking, take time to study external factors. w.Choice-Shift Ã¢â¬â (group polarization) occurs when the average of the group members post-discussion attitudes tends to be more extreme than average prediscussion attitudes, generally happens when everyone is already leaning in one direction, may become more extreme during virtual groups x. Brainstorming, Nominal Group & Delphi Techniques Ã¢â¬â basically Ã¢â¬Å"HowÃ¢â¬ they operate, Role of Electronic Communications. Brainstorming-trying to expand by getting many different interacting groups and different ideas from each group Nominal group technique: no criticizing no talking to eachother or evaluating.Do evaluation, ask everyone ideas, then rank (top to bottom) confidentially and independently, then mathematically pool them. You are trying to get everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion without people criticizing them. Delphi technique: smaller group, completely anonymous (no one knows anybody). Has one mediator. Give them each the problem and they come up with their own answers/ideas and then exchange ideas/answers with everyone else and everybody comments on eachothers ideas. Repeat the process until you come up with a general consensus. 4. Organizational Socialization: y.Meaning Ã¢â¬â A process of adaption during which entrants learn the values, norms, expectations, and established procedures for assuming a particular role and for becoming an accepted member of the group or organization z. Purpose Ã¢â¬âFor new members it reduces role ambiguity and increases feeling of security since group expectations are clarified. For the group or organization the socialization process creates more behavioral uniformity among its members, thereby developing a basis for understanding and collaboration and reducing potential group conflict. . Stages Ã¢â¬â What they are ; Sequence, & What goes on in each? 3 Stages: Anticipatory socialization- can be thought of as preliminary/prepatory stage during which time a person should be provided with realistic view of organizational goals and expectations, what the persons duties/responsibilities are, and the necessary task-related skills and abilities. Entrants can assess the fit between their values and needs of organizations. Organizational or group encounter- newcomer actually joins the group or organization.Initiation period during which individual needs to balance personal and work-related demands that may conflict with one another, while simultaneously learning new tasks, clarifying role expectations and becoming acquainted with peers. Acquisition of group norms and values- If successfully accomplished, newcomer feels apart of group and becomes accepted |. Effects of Socialization on Performance-a process of adaption during which newcomers learn the values, norms, expectations for assuming a particula r role and becoming a member of an organization.It helps the group become more effective. }. Realistic Job Previews- People entering into an organization need to know what to expect with their jobs so they can prepare to cope effectively with work related pressures and demands. ~. Mentoring Ã¢â¬â Individual and Group Group mentoring- Group influence that emerges from its norms and roles provide a greater sense of phsychological support for newcomers, facilitates their inclusion and sense of belonging. Individual mentoring- Having someone with high regard/respect help coach and guide you and help you out.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Contextual studies - Case Study Example I. Introduction (160 words) Costume and set design is an element of a movie production that tries to make a film seem real. Here the costumes and sets from two movies will be analyzed, for their ability to move the viewer backward and forward in time, making different worlds detailed, authentic, and ultimately, more believable. The movies that will be analyzed in each section are the movies The Hours and Peggy Sue Got Married. Costuming and set design can completely revolutionize the way a movie appears. If one has, as a director, sweeping visuals and detailed props, it makes an environment come alive with wonder. Costuming, especially in period pieces, definitely enhances the quality of a movie, because the people acting in the movie are much more likely to feel that they are part of a genuinely-created world, but that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel that it is created. It feels genuine, both to the performing artist creating the piece, as well as to the viewer. II. A Detailed World (400 wor ds) The details in the movie The Hours are chillingly accurate, from the decor in Virginia WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s English house to the clothes that she wears, as well as the sets designed for the characters at the other levels in the movie. Similarly, in Peggy Sue Got Married, Peggy SueÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"blast to the pastÃ¢â¬ back to the Ã¢â¬Ë60s before her and her husband got married has some very good sets and costuming. Details in sets and costuming make a movie seem more real, to be sure. Details such as the particular hat that Virginia Woolf wore in The Hours and her furnishings in her house are definitely throwbacks to 19th-century England. In The Hours, Mrs. Brown (RichardÃ¢â¬â¢s mother) wears clothing that has an air of the Ã¢â¬Ë50s about it. Her household appliances and decor of her house are all post-war-inspired. The contemporary apparel that Meryl Streep wears in her appearance as Clarissa Vaughn (a friend of RichardÃ¢â¬â¢s) in The Hours, reflects the dress and style of a 21st-century woman living in Manhattan in New York. So do the furnishings in her own flat also reflect a modernistic tone with a homey and softÃ¢â¬âversus aloof and austereÃ¢â¬âlook. Her flat looks lived-in and accessible. In Peggy Sue Got Married, we are vaulted from Peggy SueÃ¢â¬â¢s late 20th-century birthday party which has a cake on the set that is shaped in the form of a large letter Ã¢â¬Å"X,Ã¢â¬ symbolizing, subconsciously, that she has gotten divorced. This is a key prop that is used to set the scene of the movie. The fact that Peggy Sue wakes up as a high school student at her parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ house is frought with reminders from the Ã¢â¬Ë60s. Peggy Sue wakes up in the nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s office after supposedly fainting while giving blood. Peggy SueÃ¢â¬â¢s house is typical of a house in the Ã¢â¬Ë60s, with its architecture and appearance. Peggy SueÃ¢â¬â¢s clothing is typical of a Ã¢â¬Ë60s female high school studentÃ¢â¬âcomplete with a hoop skirt and a l etterman sweater. Some of the details in this movie--such as Peggy SueÃ¢â¬â¢s future husband CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s car, an old Mustang with flared sides, and the motorcycle ridden by poet-beatnik, black leather jacket-wearing Michael, whom Peggy Sue rides off with for an evening dateÃ¢â¬âonly enhance the quality of the movie, and make one feel the genuineness of the movie with its surroundings. Thus, this movie becomes more Ã¢â¬Ëreal,Ã¢â¬â¢ as it were. III. An Authentic World (420 words) The worlds in both The Hours and Peggy Sue Got Married are authentic. This is because, in the movie The Hours, costuming and set design both contribute to the genuineness of the movie by having clothing and period pieces that evoke those particular time periods. The same is true of Peggy Sue Got Married. In The Hours, the flowered apron that Mrs. Brown wears, along with the decor of her Ã¢â¬Ë
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Japanese Movies Attempt to Change Reality Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words
Japanese Movies Attempt to Change Reality - Essay Example Japanese movies does not only show the culture of a people but they also brings with it lessons that need to be learned. Moreover, it also attempts to enhance the good characteristics of people through the characters used in the stories and to change those which are not desirable. Ã¢â¬Å"I Live in FearÃ¢â¬ on the other hand approaches the audience with a delusional main character. Due to such characteristic, the protagonist is considered rather lightly but his great wealth being in danger of getting squandered by the deranged man made a rather frantic circle of family members. Upon examination though, the people involved in the case then reconsiders the fears of the old man. The messages are quite hidden behind the symbols which are used in the film to call for change. The paradox of the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s fears which are extremely realistic to him are considered as unfounded claims by his family which actually shouts to the audience quite loudly that what could be thought as insanity is the most sane thought after all. This presentation calls for viewers to open their eyes and become very observant about the things that are happening around them. It shouts that people need to do something about the things that endanger their lives and not just take them ligh tly as the old NakajimaÃ¢â¬â¢s family did. The reconsideration of Dr. Harada about NakajimaÃ¢â¬â¢s mental capacity encourages viewers to be critical about the things that are happening around them and think about the possibilities of the fears of other people. Still, using another technique, Ã¢â¬Å"Sing a Song of SexÃ¢â¬ also attempts to call for a change among the viewers by using conceptions made in the mind. The mind is a powerful part of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s being because it is the source of ideas which could be put into action. The fantasies of the students were later accomplished in the movie. The teacher who was supposed to become the model of the young people instead became the very person who taught them to become rebellious. This part of the
Persuasive arguement - Essay Example Justice is the set of principles that major function is the distribution of entitlements, of rights, opportunities and resources. These would include income, wealth and the liberties that an individual possesses. For it therefore to be justice, the individuals to who these opportunities are presented must be several. Justice principally answers the question of who has a right or is entitled to what, in a given set or relative to other people or agents. This is more so, in an event that several agents are competing for these opportunities to meet different goals. In a liberal view therefore, and under these circumstances, a just distribution would take into considerations the provisions of mutual and equal respect. Democracy on the other hand, is a set of collective decision making processes. In these processes, those who belong to a given society or a particular group have an equal say in determining the rules that govern or should govern them. It is what Rawls defines as the exercis e of public reason. While the principle of democracy could be operationalized in a varied number of ways, its respect involves protecting the rights of the individuals, their liberties and their freedoms. These rights extend to the right to free speech, the freedom of expression and the freedom of association. It involves the right to let the majority determine who will hold political offices, and what laws will be used to govern the society. It also includes giving every individual, who has the capacity to vote, the chance to make his voice heard. While democracy is the respecting the will and the say of the majority, justice is protecting the rights of everybody in the society, including that of the minority. It is from this that justice and democracy always seem to come into conflict. The rules that are chosen through democratic procedures may fail to align with the demands that justice would propose for the society to appear or be just. The priority of the right over the good is one of the most central convictions of the political liberalisms that John Rawls proposes. It is common for democratic procedures and processes to be carried out in good faith. However, it is not always true that democratic procedures will always have it right when it comes to justice. It is common for the majority to use the strength of their numbers to stifle the voices of the minorities. It is for this reason and to remove this difficulty that minorities usually have their fundamental interests guarded by the provisions of a constitution. In this way, the controversy is removed from the whims of the majority. It is the belief of every liberal society that there are certain core principles that a society must have. Without these core principles, no society however developed, cannot claim that they express equality. Most of these interests typically provide for the basic freedoms, liberties and needs of an individual, including shelter, nutrition, sanitation, education, freedom of movement, bodily integrity, the freedom of thought and the equality before the law. As a consequence, subsistence rights and the liberties of a person place constraints on all the democratic decision makings. That is why if any outcome of any democratic process or procedure violates the provisions stipulated in the supreme law, that process is considered ipso facto unjust. For instance, the Declaration of Independence by the United States, that was adopted by the continental congress on the 4th of July 1776 asserted certain natural
Monday, August 26, 2019
Real chocolate company - Essay Example The company sells its products through retail stores both company owned and franchised. It produces wide variety of chocolates (that caters to the different tastes of the customers) at the company owned factory and delivers the same, to stores in a cost effective manner. The products such as fudges and caramel apples are made within the store in order to maintain the freshness. The convenience and the suitable tastes of the products are directly correlated with the number of foot-falls in the stores and overall sales. The key stakeholders of the company include all franchisees, employees, company owners and customers. With the company deriving a 72 percent of revenues by selling the products to franchisees, the satisfaction of the franchisees stands crucial for the company in order to keep the sales growth intact in future years. Also, keeping abreast of the changing consumer preferences is becoming a must. While the company sales growth and financials appear sound, many smaller and similar sized companies having variety of product offerings, fast changing consumer eating habits with rising income levels, aggressive marketing strategies of market leaders, maturing and fragmented nature of the industry is posing challenges for the company to maintain its current growth. This report evaluates the various external and internal factors related to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business, and presents a strategic solution for the current problem faced by the company. The analysis of the five competitive forces (suggested by Michael porter), viz. threat of new entrants, threat of substitution, bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers, and rivalry among the existing companies, better explains the nature of confectionery industry and provides the basic road map to develop a competitive strategy for The Real Chocolate Company (Porter, 1998). The factors like, lack of
Sunday, August 25, 2019
2.To what extent does Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas fulfil the stated aim of the Voyage extraordinaires series to provide instruction which amuses an - Essay Example It still finds its place in hearts of many people. One of the most famous and iconic characters of this book is Captain Nemo. True to his name Nemo was an enigma to Aronax, the narrator and the professor in the story, Ned land, the Canadian harpooner and Conseil, loyal servant of Arronax. To really look into characteristics of Nemo, letÃ¢â¬â¢s briefly sum the concise idea about this classic. While idea of the story is being told we will analyze the character of Captain Nemo. The story is being narrated by Pierre Aronnax, who is a famous marine biologist. It all starts with a theory of narwhal being sighted in various places. Aronnax along with his servant and Ned Land follow the path of seas only to understand that narwhal is a submarine which is led by a certain captain called Captain Nemo. The story then revolves around the expedition of Nemo, Aronnax, Conseil and Ned wherein they travel under sea for sixty thousand kilometers or twenty thousand leagues. The book became a cult success and has achieved the tag of classic not only because the central idea of Verne but also the style, characterization and treatment given to the plot to make it more entertaining and astounding. Captain Nemo is the central character of the story. Nemo in Latin means no one or nobody and that name aptly suits him because of his mystical attitude and mystery behavior in the course of the book. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take the book analysis in more detail to understand the iconic character of this great captain. The name has lot of significance to the character and the outcome of book and we shall unravel the mystery behind it now. The first meeting with Captain itself was the one to remember. When Ned, Conseil and Aronnax were being taken as captives in the submarine Ã¢â¬ËNautilusÃ¢â¬â¢, each of them explain their situation in different languages of English, French, German and Latin. Captain Nemo does not reply and walks away. Later when he confronts the group he was attacked by Ned and
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Culture's Portrayal of the Vietnam War - Essay Example Most of the popular culture images were highly critical of the war, and painted the US forces as brutal intruders into an otherwise peaceful and innocent jungle scene. From the viewpoint of the popular culture, its images and art, everybody had a scene to play and everybody got it wrong. The lowly buck private was no less responsible than the Commander in Chief, and the Pentagon shared equal guilt with the Military-Industrial Complex. Was the criticism legitimate From the viewpoint of the actors, agents, and citizens that filled these roles, the media's criticism of the war and their grim portrayal of the times, was an exaggerated stretch of reality that forever tarnished the reputation of an entire generation. It was easy to criticize a war where the world's mightiest military machine invaded a jungle, decimated the population, destroyed the environment, and left fifty thousand of their best and brightest dead, and another half a million maimed for life. Yet, the war was more than just the front lines in some far away jungle. The war was the returning soldiers confronting a society that was different than the one they had left. It was the protestors that were stereotyped by both sides of the political spectrum as they challenged the system and denounced the American way. It was also the public that was waiting in the wings to weigh in with their critical support or criticism. These were the victims of the war. Writers would continue to paint the makers of the war as deceptive, greedy, and hypocritical megalomaniacs. Anti-war protestors would forever be branded as a silver spooned generation on drugs, gazing as the reality of capitalism slipped through their fingers. Conscripted soldiers w ould play the role of the demonized madman, bent on total destruction, and having little thought of patriotism while only hoping to escape an imminent death. Criticizing the war was easy, but keeping the criticism legitimate was a far more difficult task. The Vietnam War presented America with a foreign policy, a military action, and a public response that certainly had plenty to be critical of. However, in an effort to sell the war, or its end, the portrayal of every aspect of it became a marketing tool designed to sell a political position or a blockbuster film. The movie Good Morning Vietnam (1987) chronicled the Vietnam tour of Armed Forces Radio disc jockey Adrian Cronauer, and was one of the more accurate versions of the war from the soldier's point of view. Cronauer is portrayed as a soldier and a human being that has the capacity to empathize, criticize, frustrate his commanders, and fall in love even as the war goes on all around him. This is a different approach than the doomsday films such as Full Metal Jacket (1987) or Apocalypse Now (1979), that painted the soldier as a robotic killer, faced with continual death, and willing to extract any revenge necessary to accomplish the mission and survive to fight one more day. The viewer was left with the impression that the war had turned a generation of young patriotic men into automated killers that had the potential to snap at the slightest trigger or pent up memory. To be clear, there was no one singular experience for the Vietnam veteran. However, the barrage of pop culture images that stereotyped the Vietnam veteran as a ticking time bomb has had a significant negative impact on these
Friday, August 23, 2019
Short of Music History - Essay Example According to the text, African American music replicates the styles of music and performances that still exist in Africa. These kinds of music integrate human life experiences since the communities strongly consider music to be a fundamental part of life. According to African life and music are inseparable. Because of this, the performances of music not only signifies entertainment but also accompanies certain activities. Further, the performers enjoy close associations with the community.Ã Musicians therefore frequently perform music in the communities they come from and for the community members as opposed to the European culture, which solicits the service of trained musicians. To further, explore these facts, I will visit the African cultural center and learn more about their music and its origins. This study will also encompass the uncovering the characteristics of African American music and how it relates to African culture. I am now knowledgeable of the fact that the first African Americans in the nation came as a very small group and server as free or semi-free slaves. They held closely their cultural values even as they slowly became aware of the different cultural experiences of the Europeans. The increase in colonies and the need for workers in the plantations led to the increase of the slaves in the nation. With the continued stay in America, their familiarity with the American culture increased factors that became even more evident with the second generation African Americans. Unlike the first generation immigrants, the second generation embraced the American culture at relatively higher levels. However, the determination of the first generation African Americans to maintain their cultural values caused the community to integrate those culture for example in their music. African American music demonstrates this fact as seen in the way it expresses the culture of the African continent.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Human Resources Management and Training Essay A writing audit contains some basic rundown of key sources, yet it, for the most part, has a hierarchical example and joins both outline and mix, regularly inside particular reasonable sorts. A synopsis is an audit of the fundamental data of the source, however, a union is an improvement, or a rebuild, of that data in a way that illuminates how you are wanting to examine an exploration issue. The systematic highlights of a writing audit may: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Give another clarification of old material or blend of new with old understandings, Ã¢â¬ ¢ Trace the subjective improvement of the field, including principle talks about, Ã¢â¬ ¢ Based on the circumstance, asses the sources and guide the peruser on the most reasonable or pertinent, or Ã¢â¬ ¢ Usually, in the consummation of a writing survey, distinguish where defects exist in how an issue has been looked into to date. The reason for a writing survey is to: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Place each work in the encompassing of its presentation to the comprehension of the exploration issue being considered, Ã¢â¬ ¢ Describe the association of each work to the others under survey, Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identify better approaches to clarify, and shed light on any defects in past research, Ã¢â¬ ¢ Solving issues among as far as anyone knows nullification of past examinations, Ã¢â¬ ¢ Point the path in dealing with a requirement for additional examination, and Ã¢â¬ ¢ Discover your own particular discoveries inside the setting of existing writing. The writing survey which was utilized: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Methodological Survey : This approach gives a structure of comprehension at various levels (i.e. those of hypothesis, substantive fields, investigate methodologies and information accumulation and examination strategies), empowers specialists to draw on a wide variety of understanding going from the applied level to useful archives for use in hands on work in the zones of ontological and epistemological thought, quantitative and subjective reconciliation, testing, talking with, information gathering and information examination, and helps feature numerous moral issues which we ought to know about and consider as we experience our examination. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Argumentative Audit This shape analyzes writing specifically so as to help or disprove a contention, profoundly embedded figure, or philosophical blemishes effectively settled in the writing. The design is to build up a group of writing that sets up a contrarian perspective. Given the esteem loaded nature of some sociology inquire about [e.g., instructive change; migration control], contentious ways to deal with dissecting the writing can be honest to goodness and essential type of talk. Nonetheless, take note of that they can likewise present issues of predisposition when they are utilized to make rundown cases of the sort found inefficient surveys. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Theoretical Audit The target of this frame is to inspect the corpus of the hypothesis that has aggregated with respect to an issue, idea, hypothesis, wonders. The hypothetical writing audit help builds up what speculations as of now exist, the connections between them, to what degree the current speculations have been explored, and to grow new theories to be tried. Regularly this shape is utilized to help set up an absence of suitable speculations or uncover that momentum hypotheses are insufficient for clarifying new or developing examination issues. The unit of examination can concentrate on a hypothetical idea or an entire hypothesis or structure.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Functions of Human Resources in Organisations Executive Summary In this assignment, discuss about the functions of the Human Resource Department in an organization. As per case study, Reed Boardall is a typical company. It has 700 plus employees. This company does not have a HR department. In this assignment there are four sections: 1st section is the introduction of the Human Resource Department. HR department is a department to settle personnel problem of an organization. HR department is the bridge of management and employees. In 2nd section, regarding the study case, Reed Boardall decided not have HR department in his company, so there are advantage and disadvantage of his decision. For advantage of Chief Executive Keith BoardallÃ¢â¬â¢s decision, not having HR department, can save up the money to pay the HR department staff, aim for cost saving. Simplified the management level, prevent unnecessary bureaucracy. Without HR Department, save up time to solve conflict. If some conflicts occur between employees, line manager can solve immediately, no need to pass through the HR department and analysis or investigate. For disadvantage of Chief Executive Keith BoardallÃ¢â¬â¢s decision, not having HR department, will occur some problem regarding on employee relation, employment development and hiring process. In 3rd ections discuss of function HR department. They plan the manpower the organization. HR department arrange the training for employee and the development plan for the employees, determined wages of the employees. Arrange performance appraisal once or twice a year to analysis and offer a promotion to good employees. Establish the organization policy and implement into the organization to all employees. At 4th section, that is the last section, to conclude the whole assignment. HR department is important for the bigger organization. It is advisable to having a HR department if the organization having more than 50 plus employee.HR department is to handle the personnel stuff in the organization. Regarding the hiring process, training, wages for employees, company policy, all handle by HR department. So that, line managers can focus on their work scope. Every department can perform well in their own work scope. 1.0Ã Introduction The Researcher shows (Aminuddin.2009, p.2) human resource management is the development and implementation of systems in an organization designed to attract, develop and retain a high-performing workforce. HR responsibilities are recruit suitable employees, Arrange the suitable training course to employees, plan the appraisal to the employees, state the compensation and reward policy to match with the employment laws. Keeping the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ disciplinary record update also is the HR department job scope. There are some suggestions and details of HR Department function explain to Chief Executive Keith Boardall for persuade him to having HR Department in company better future. 2.0Ã Introduction As per case study, Reed Boardall company is a typical company, 700 plus staff working in the company at different department, include finance, marketing, PR. There are no Human Resource Department in company Reed Boardall. Below are the advantage and disadvantage of company Reed Boardall not to have HR Department. 2.1Ã Advantage of Reed BoardallÃ¢â¬â¢s decision 2.1.1 Cost Company need to spend large amount of money to HR department as wage of employees, if the organization does not have HR department, the money can be re-invest on the company business. 2.1.2 Simplified Management If there is no HR Department, the organization can reduce the unnecessary layers bureaucracy. If having HR department, more employee to watch over, and more procedure need to follow. It will causes business owner or manager less authorities to make a decision, and due to the process take long time to settle. The organization not having an HR department will simplifies the management process. 2.13 Time For Solving Problem As per Keith said, if any conflict happened, line manager should do the personnel function and knew the incident clearly, so the line manager can solve the conflict efficiency. 2.2 Disadvantage of Reed BoardallÃ¢â¬â¢s decision 2.2.1 Employee Relation Without HR department employee in an organisation may difficult to developing and maintain a good relationship between one and each other. Human resources is the middle person between the owner or management person and the employees. HR Department is a place let employee to say out their unsatisfied regard their work. HR Department will understand the employee. It decreases the gaps between company management and employees and offers employees the opportunity to release their unhappy about the company. If your company does not have human resource department, it must develop a plan to effectively communicate with employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ concern. 2.2.2Ã Employee Development Another advantage of human resource planning involves employee development. As the human resource department identifies potential employees to promote them to management positions, send them to training, upgrade their skill and promote them.. HR department review employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ appraisal report, and arrange the promotion. 2.2.3 Simplified Hiring Process When there is lack of manpower in an organizational, managers or owner will be responsible for the recruitment, searching the applicant qualification, select the right candidates for the position. If there is Human resource department, owners and managers can focus on their daily tasks rather than searching for candidates, interviewing them and performing background checks. They can just give the work to the human resources department to focus on the hiring process. 2.3 Conclusion In the conclusion, there have advantage and disadvantage of Executive KeithÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to not having HR department. The researcher show (Hill, 2001, p225) if an organisational having less than 50 employees, the organisational should not have an HR Department because it will increase the cost. But in other side, if the organisational having more than 50 employees, the organizational are advisable to have an HR department to manage the employee in the company. If the Organizational have an HR department, the line manger can more concentrate in their work scope, it may lead to the line manager have a better performance in their position. 3.0Ã Introduction Function of HR Department are recruit suitable employees for the organisation, send the suitable employee to the suitable training, arrange the appraisal programs, establish compensation and reward system, concern for safety and health of the employees, establish the organization policy with implementing the employment laws, improving employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ productivity, and keep the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ record up to date. (Hill, 2001) There are some suggestions and details of HR DepartmentÃ¢â¬â¢s functions explain to Chief Executive Keith Boardall for persuade him to having HR Department in company to had better future. 3.1 Function of HR Department 3.1.1 Manpower Planning It involves the process of recruit the right candidates for the suitable position for the organization. Beside this, HR Department must plan how many should recruit for each department. HR manager must know the strength and the weakness of the employees; HR manager will design them in the position which employee can perform more productive. Prepare of Contract of employment also is the responsibilities of HR Department. 3.1.2 Training and development HR department need to observe the product knowledge of the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢, if employee lack of the knowledge, they would not perform well. HR Manager will send the employee to the course training to improve their knowledge, so that they will improve the skill and will performance well and become more productivity. 3.1.3 Determining wages and salaries HR Department will analyst and surveys of the wages for different positions in an organization. HR department will review employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s qualification, experience, and some family member details. The decision for employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ wage will be consultaion with finance department also. 3.1.4 Performance Appraisal and promotion Once the employees are recruited, the HR Department has to review their performance on a regular period, to make sure they are improving, keeping employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ records update. Performance appraisal is the process of observe, analyse and recording information about the work perform of an employee. If the employee is potential to the better position, HR Department will make arrange of training and promotion. 3.1.5Ã Implementing Organizational Policies HR Department has to coordinate with line manager and see that the organizational policies are being apply to all employees. If there are employees against the company policy, or not following the organizational rules and regulation, disciplinary action for them. HR department will implement and conceive all the actions. 3.2 Conclusion In conclusion, HR department have so many functions, and according Hill stated that if an organization having more than 50 employees, are advice to have an HR Department. Hence Company Reed Boardall having 700 plus staff, it consider are big organization. It should have an HR department to management the employee personnel problem. Although line manager know their staff well, but if these let HR department settle will be better put the effort on their 4.0 Conclusion and Recommendations In the conclusion, HR department may adding unnecessary bureaucracy, but in a bigger organization, it prefer have HR department. HR department is the bridge between management and employees. HR department also is a department which supporting the organization to become better. HR department will retain the good employees or productivity in the organization and training them to work for the organization. By process, HR department will keep an eye on those probation employees, record their performance. Some employee will stay the same bad behavior after received warning, so the HR department will take discipline action on these types of employee. Whereas, employees whose not suitable will determined, if they are not work hard. So that, make sure the organization are upgrading and become better and strong. At last, for bigger organization prefer to have HR department. HR department can describe as repair department, because it repairs all the staff to become better and stay at the organization.
Strategic Change in Government Based on Organization Hierarchy The literature supports the position that there should be a relationship between the structure and organization change. This study was undertaken to determine how different organization roles, hierarchy, and sizes affect planned strategic change. A survey instrument was administered to top federal government agency leadership to assess change in their organization. The intention is to draw common relationships between organization change and specific categories or sizes of organizations. Role of Change Business strategy and structure have always been related. Organizational change involves innovation, process improvement, and organizational redesign (Galbraith and Lawler, 1993). They also noted that the hierarchical structure is related to changes in speed, quality and productivity. In recent years, the pace of change has accelerated so drastically that most organizational structures and management principles have no hope of adjusting or adapting (Hammer and Champy, 1993). TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s changes are discontinuous and happening at a geometric rate. Organizations must be sufficiently agile to be instantly reconfigurable to meet new demands (Tetenbaum, 1998). Change efforts involve attempting to reduce discrepancies between the real and the ideal (Hersey and Blanchard, 1993). The change could be a first order change that occurs in a stable system that itself remains unchanged. It could be a second order change when fundamental properties of the system are changed such as the fall of communism (Hersey and Blanchard, 1993). Evolutionary changes are gradual and tend to be first order while revolutionary changes are second order. Both of these events could be driving the changes described in this study. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Some changes are limited and incremental in nature. Strategic, system wide changes implemented under crisis conditions are highly risky. Nadler and Tushman (1990) found that all strategic organizational changes initiated under crisis conditions with short time constraints were by far the riskiest. Such changes usually require a change in core values. Some recent trends that have generally lead to significant changes in corporate culture are reengineering, shift to horizontal forms of organizing, total quality management (Daft, 1998). These should not negate the i... ...tudy in TQM, leadership, and organizational culture in a government agency. Public Administration Review, 56: 227-236. Scott, W. R. (1998). Organizations rational, natural, and open systems (4th ed.). San Francisco: Chandler Publishing. Scott, W. R. 1998. Organizations rational, natural, and open systems (4th ed.). San Francisco: Chandler Publishing. Seidman, H. (1998). Politics, position, and power: The dynamics of federal organization (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. Seidman, H. (1998). Politics, position, and power: The dynamics of federal organization (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. Senge, P. 1990. The fifth discipline. New York, NY: Doubleday. Tetenbaum, T. J. (spring 1998). Shifting Paradigms: From Newton to chasos. Organizatinal Dynamics, pp. 21-33. Tushman, M. L., & Romanelli, E. 1985. Organization evolution: A metamorphosis model of convergence and reorientation. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, 7. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. United States government manual 2000. Office of the Federal Register National Archives and Records Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Strategic Change in Government Based on Organization Hierarchy Essay Strategic Change in Government Based on Organization Hierarchy The literature supports the position that there should be a relationship between the structure and organization change. This study was undertaken to determine how different organization roles, hierarchy, and sizes affect planned strategic change. A survey instrument was administered to top federal government agency leadership to assess change in their organization. The intention is to draw common relationships between organization change and specific categories or sizes of organizations. Role of Change Business strategy and structure have always been related. Organizational change involves innovation, process improvement, and organizational redesign (Galbraith and Lawler, 1993). They also noted that the hierarchical structure is related to changes in speed, quality and productivity. In recent years, the pace of change has accelerated so drastically that most organizational structures and management principles have no hope of adjusting or adapting (Hammer and Champy, 1993). TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s changes are discontinuous and happening at a geometric rate. Organizations must be sufficiently agile to be instantly reconfigurable to meet new demands (Tetenbaum, 1998). Change efforts involve attempting to reduce discrepancies between the real and the ideal (Hersey and Blanchard, 1993). The change could be a first order change that occurs in a stable system that itself remains unchanged. It could be a second order change when fundamental properties of the system are changed such as the fall of communism (Hersey and Blanchard, 1993). Evolutionary changes are gradual and tend to be first order while revolutionary changes are second order. Both of these events could be driving the changes described in this study. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Some changes are limited and incremental in nature. Strategic, system wide changes implemented under crisis conditions are highly risky. Nadler and Tushman (1990) found that all strategic organizational changes initiated under crisis conditions with short time constraints were by far the riskiest. Such changes usually require a change in core values. Some recent trends that have generally lead to significant changes in corporate culture are reengineering, shift to horizontal forms of organizing, total quality management (Daft, 1998). These should not negate the i... ...tudy in TQM, leadership, and organizational culture in a government agency. Public Administration Review, 56: 227-236. Scott, W. R. (1998). Organizations rational, natural, and open systems (4th ed.). San Francisco: Chandler Publishing. Scott, W. R. 1998. Organizations rational, natural, and open systems (4th ed.). San Francisco: Chandler Publishing. Seidman, H. (1998). Politics, position, and power: The dynamics of federal organization (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. Seidman, H. (1998). Politics, position, and power: The dynamics of federal organization (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. Senge, P. 1990. The fifth discipline. New York, NY: Doubleday. Tetenbaum, T. J. (spring 1998). Shifting Paradigms: From Newton to chasos. Organizatinal Dynamics, pp. 21-33. Tushman, M. L., & Romanelli, E. 1985. Organization evolution: A metamorphosis model of convergence and reorientation. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, 7. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. United States government manual 2000. Office of the Federal Register National Archives and Records Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.